International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 4, Issue 9  (September 2017), Pages:  6-18

Title:  Flexural performance of nano silica modified roller compacted rubbercrete

Author(s):  Musa Adamu *, Bashar S. Mohammed, Nasir Shafiq


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Full Text - PDF          XML


Roller compacted concrete (RCC) has similar properties as conventional concrete; it is brittle, less ductile and has poor tensile strength. When used for pavement applications, it is also subjected to repetitive fatigue loads and flexural stresses. In addition, dowel bars or reinforcement cannot be used due to the way it is consolidated. These shorten the pavement life and increase the cost of maintenance. Therefore in order to reduce these defects by reducing the pavement deterioration and improving its service life, one of the possible ways is by incorporating additives such as polymers, fibers or crumb rubber (CR) into the RCC mix where it will absorb the deformation and strain energy caused by the repetitive loadings. The aim of this study was to improve the flexural strength, flexural toughness and ductility of RCC pavement. CR was used to partially replace fine aggregate at different percentages (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) to produce roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR), and nano silica (NS) was added by weight of cementitious materials at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% to mitigate loss in strength caused by CR. The findings showed that both flexural toughness and ductility index of RCC increases with increasing CR content. Similarly, the flexural strength of RCR increases for up to 20% replacement of fine aggregate with CR. The addition of NS increases the flexural strength of RCR; however it decreases toughness and ductility index, thereby making the RCR more rigid. Lastly response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was used to develop model for predicting the flexural toughness and ductility index of RCR using CR and NS as the variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the developed models have a good degree of correlation and predicting ability. 

© 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Crumb rubber, Nano silica, Roller compacted rubbercrete, Flexural toughness, Response surface methodology

Article History: Received 16 May 2017, Received in revised form 20 July 2017, Accepted 25 July 2017

Digital Object Identifier:


Adamu M, Mohammed BS, and Shafiq N (2017). Flexural performance of nano silica modified roller compacted rubbercrete. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(9): 6-18


  1. ACI (1999). ACI 544-2R: Measurement of properties of fiber reinforced concrete. American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA. 
  2. ACI (2002). ACI 207-5R: Guide for selecting proportions for no-slump concrete. American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA. 
  3. ACI (2011). ACI 207-5R: Report on roller-compacted mass concrete. American Concrete Institute, Michigan, USA. 
  4. Adamu M, Mohammed BS, and Shafiq N (2016). Nano silica modified roller compacted rubbercrete–an overview. In the Engineering Challenges for Sustainable Future: In the 3rd International Conference on Civil, Offshore and Environmental Engineering (ICCOEE'16), CRC Press, Malaysia: 483-488. 
  5. Adamu M, Mohammed BS, and Shafiq N (2017). Effect of mineral filler type on strength of roller compacted rubbercrete for pavement applications. In the 7th International Conference on Key Engineering Materials (ICKEM'17) IOP Conference, 201: 1-5. 
  6. Adaska WS (2006). Roller-compacted concrete (RCC). In: Lamond JF (Ed.), Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, USA.        PMCid:PMC1610315 
  7. Ahoor AH and Zandi-Atashbar N (2014). Fuel production based on catalytic pyrolysis of waste tires as an optimized model. Energy Conversion and Management, 87: 653-669. 
  8. Al-Tayeb MM, Bakar BA, Ismail H, and Akil HM (2013). Effect of partial replacement of sand by fine crumb rubber on impact load behavior of concrete beam: experiment and nonlinear dynamic analysis. Materials and Structures, 46: 1299-1307. 
  9. Alyamac KE, Ghafari E, and Ince R (2016). Development of eco-efficient self-compacting concrete with waste marble powder using the response surface method. Journal of Cleaner Production, 144: 192-202. 
  10. Amin M and Abu EL-Hassan (2015). Effect of using different types of nano materials on mechanical properties of high strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 80: 116-124. 
  11. Atahan AO and Yucel AÖ (2012). Crumb rubber in concrete: static and dynamic evaluation. Construction and Building Materials, 36: 617-622. 
  12. Azmi N, Mohammed BS, and AL-Mattarneh H (2008). Engineering properties of concrete containing recycled tire rubber. In the International Conference on Construction and Building Technology (ICCBT'08), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, B(34): 373–382. Available online at: 
  13. CRD-C (1992). CRD-C 161: Standard practice for selecting proportions for roller compacted concrete (RCC) pavement mixtures using soil compaction concepts. US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC, USA. 
  14. ERMCO (2013). Guide to roller concrete. European Ready Mixed Concrete Organization, Brussels, Belgium. 
  15. Fakhri M (2016). The effect of waste rubber particles and silica fume on the mechanical properties of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement. Journal of Cleaner Production, 129: 521-530. 
  16. Grdic Z, Toplicic G, Ristic N, Grdic D, and Metkovic P (2014). Hydro-abrasive resistance and mechanical properties of rubberized concrete. Građevinar, 66: 11-20.  
  17. Hilal NN (2017). Hardened properties of self-compacting concrete with different crumb rubber size and content. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6(1): 191-206. 
  18. Kardos AJ and Durham SA (2015). Strength, durability, and environmental properties of concrete utilizing recycled tire particles for pavement applications. Construction and Building Materials, 98: 832-845. 
  19. Li Q, Cai L, Fu Y, Wang H, and Zou Y (2015). Fracture properties and response surface methodology model of alkali-slag concrete under freeze–thaw cycles. Construction and Building Materials, 93: 620-626. 
  20. Liu F, Meng LY, Ning GF, and Li J (2015). Fatigue performance of rubber-modified recycled aggregate concrete (RRAC) for pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 95: 207-217. 
  21. Mansour F and Ershad A (2017). Crack behavior analysis of roller compacted concrete mixtures containing reclaimed asphalt pavement and crumb rubber. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 180: 43-59. 
  22. Mehta P and Monteiro P (2006). Concrete-microstructure, properties and materials. McGraw Hill, University of California, Berkeley, USA. 
  23. Moghaddam TB, Karim MR, and Abdelaziz M (2011). A review on fatigue and rutting performance of asphalt mixes. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(4): 670-682. 
  24. Mohammed AM (2015). Influence of nano materials on flexural behavior and compressive strength of concrete. HBRC Journal, 12(2): 212-225. 
  25. Mohammed BS (2010). Structural behavior and m–k value of composite slab utilizing concrete containing crumb rubber. Construction and Building Materials, 24: 1214-1221. 
  26. Mohammed BS and Azmi N (2014). Strength reduction factors for structural rubbercrete. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 8: 270-281. 
  27. Mohammed BS, Awang AB, Wong SS, and Nhavene CP (2016). Properties of nano silica modified rubbercrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 119: 66-75. 
  28. Mohammed BS, Azmi NJ, and Abdullahi M (2011). Evaluation of rubbercrete based on ultrasonic pulse velocity and rebound hammer tests. Construction and Building Materials, 25: 1388-1397. 
  29. Mohammed BS, Hossain KMA, Swee JTE, Wong G, and Abdullahi M (2012). Properties of crumb rubber hollow concrete block. Journal of Cleaner Production, 23: 57-67. 
  30. Montgomery DC (2008). Design and analysis of experiments. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, USA. 
  31. Moustafa A and Elgawady MA (2015). Mechanical properties of hmigh strength concrete with scrap tire rubber. Construction and Building Materials, 93: 249-256. 
  32. Mukharjee BB and Barai SV (2014). Influence of nano-silica on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 55: 29-37.
  33. Ozbay E, Lachemi M, and Sevim UK (2011). Compressive strength, abrasion resistance and energy absorption capacity of rubberized concretes with and without slag. Materials and Structures, 44: 1297-1307. 
  34. Sengoz B and Topal A (2005). Use of asphalt roofing shingle waste in HMA. Construction and Building Materials, 19: 337-346. 
  35. Siddique R (2007). Waste materials and by-products in concrete. Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin, Germany. 
  36. Thomas BS and Gupta RC (2015). Properties of high strength concrete containing scrap tire rubber. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113: 86-92. 
  37. Yilmaz A and Degirmenci N (2009). Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials. Waste Management, 29: 1541-1546.              PMid:19110410 
  38. Youssf O, Elgawady MA, Mills JE, and Ma X (2014). An experimental investigation of crumb rubber concrete confined by fibre reinforced polymer tubes. Construction and Building Materials, 53: 522-532. 
  39. Youssf O, Mills JE, and Hassanli R (2016). Assessment of the mechanical performance of crumb rubber concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 125: 175-183. 
  40. Zheng L, Hou XS, and Yuan Y (2008). Strength, modulus of elasticity, and brittleness index of rubberized concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 20: 692-699.