International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 4, Issue 8  (August 2017), Pages:  29-36

Title:  Exploring switching factors for mobile number portability: A survey

Author(s):  Imran Hameed Khaliq 1, *, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood 1, Summaira Malik 1, Malik Jahangir Jan 2, Asif Zameer 3


1Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of New Media, Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey
3Department of Marketing, FORE School of Management, New Delhi, India

Full Text - PDF          XML


Pakistan’s mobile phone market is one of the world’s fastest growing markets with a subscriber base of 137 million users. Competition in the country’s telecommunication industry is dominated by four players and customer demand is high. In addition, Pakistan is the first country in South Asia to have implemented Mobile Number Portability (MNP) in March 2007. MNP is a facility that allows mobile subscribers to switch between service providers without changing their existing phone numbers. Mobile phone service provider’s selection may be influenced by various factors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to explore factors affecting MNP and to determine which factors were most influential in the selection of mobile phone service providers in a developing economy like Pakistan. Moreover, the study also probed into differences in customer perceptions between pre-paid and post-paid customers. This exploratory study is based on primary data collected from 300 customers using services of different cellular companies who had experienced MNP facility. Factor analysis was carried out on obtained data and reliability of the resultant scale was verified to achieve the objectives of the study. The outcome of this research provided a concise framework of the various dimensions of customer choice. Contrary to previous researches, the result of this study indicated that infrastructural services, customer relationships, call quality and promotional packages were the most important factors affecting MNP. However, price of services was found less important factor in selection of telecommunication service providers. This study also showed that pre-paid and post-paid customers can be significantly different for many value-added services and promotional tools. 

© 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Mobile number portability, Telecommunication, Developing economy, Mobile phone service provider, Customer satisfaction

Article History: Received 18 April 2017, Received in revised form 27 June 2017, Accepted 28 June 2017

Digital Object Identifier:


Khaliq IH, Mahmood HZ, Malik S, Jan MJ, and Zameer A (2017). Exploring switching factors for mobile number portability: A survey. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(8): 29-36


Akbar MM and Parvez N (2009). Impact of service quality, trust, and customer satisfaction on customers loyalty. ABAC Journal, 29(1): 24-38.
Ali JF, Ali I, ur Rehman K, Yilmaz AK, Safwan N, and Afzal H (2010). Determinants of consumer retention in cellular industry. African Journal of Business Management, 4(12): 2402-2408.
Aydin S and Özer G (2005). The analysis of antecedents of customer loyalty in the Turkish mobile telecommunication market. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8): 910-925.
Bolton RN and Drew JH (1991). A multistage model of customers' assessments of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4): 375-384.
Buehler S and Haucap J (2004). Mobile number portability. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 4(3):223-238.
Buzzell D and Gale BT (1987). The PIMS principles: linking strategy to performance. Simon and Schuster, New York, USA.
Danaher PJ and Mattsson J (1994). Customer Satisfaction during the service delivery process. European Journal of Marketing, 28(5): 5-16.
Danaher PJ and Rust RT (1996). Indirect financial benefits from service quality. Quality Management Journal, 3(2): 63-75.
Das SK (2013). Customer satisfaction of mobile operators in Bangladesh. Available online at: 2353433
Diller H (2000). Preiszufriedenheit bei dienstleistungen. Betriebswirtschaft-Stuttgart, 60(5): 570-587.
Evanschitzky H, Iyer GR, and Caemmerer B (2008). Dimensions of satisfaction in retail settings: A research note. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 7(3): 275-285.
Fornell C (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience. The Journal of Marketing, 56(1): 6-21.
Fornell C and Westbrook RA (1984). The vicious circle of consumer complaints. Journal of Marketing, 48(3): 68-78.
GSMA (2015). The mobile economy. GSMA Company, London, UK. Available online at: worldwide-offices/london-office
Gupta D and Sharma A (2009). Customer loyalty and approach of service providers: An empirical study of mobile airtime service industry in India. Services Marketing Quarterly, 30(4): 342-364.
Hansemark OC and Albinsson M (2004). Customer satisfaction and retention: the experiences of individual employees. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 14(1): 40-57.
Herrmann A, Xia L, Monroe KB, and Huber F (2007). The influence of price fairness on customer satisfaction: An empirical test in the context of automobile purchases. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16(1): 49-58.
Ibrahim MS, Sadiq N, and Sajid A (2008). Impact of ethical practices on quality of services of bile telecom companies: Case study of Pakistan. In the 11th QMOD Conference on Quality Management and Organizational Development Attaining Sustainability From Organizational Excellence to SustainAble Excellence, Linköping University Electronic Press, Helsingborg, Sweden, 033: 931-939. Available online at:
Ismail H and Khatibi A (2004). Study of the relationship between perception of value and price and customer satisfaction: The case of Malaysian telecommunications industry. Journal of American Academy of Business, 4(1/2): 309-313.
ITU (2015). ICT facts and figures. International Telecommunication Union. Geneva, Switzerland. Available online at:
Jahanzeb S, Fatima T, and Khan MB (2011). An empirical analysis of customer loyalty in Pakistan's telecommunication industry. Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management, 18(1): 5-15.

John JS (2010). An analysis on the customer loyalty of bharat sanchar nigam Ltd. Journal of Development Research, 2(2). Available online at:

Khan S and Afsheen S (2012). Determinants of customer satisfaction in telecom industry. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(12): 12833-12840.
Kim MK, Park MC, and Jeong DH (2004). The effects of customer satisfaction and switching barrier on customer loyalty in Korean mobile telecommunication services. Telecommunications Policy, 28(2): 145-159.
Lee J, Lee J, and Feick L (2001). The impact of switching costs on the customer satisfaction‐loyalty link: Mobile phone service in France. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(1): 35-48.
Leelakulthanit O and Hongcharu B (2011). Factors that impact customer satisfaction: Evidence from the Thailand mobile cellular network industry. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 4(2): 67-76.
Lim H, Widdows R, and Park J (2006). M‐loyalty: winning strategies for mobile carriers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(4): 208-218.
Meeker M and Wu L (2013). Internet Trends D11 Conference. The annual Internet Trends Report, Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers (KPCB). Menlo Park, USA.
Min D and Wan L (2009). Switching factors of mobile customers in Korea. Journal of Service Science, 1(1): 105-120.
Mohammad J and Zar Wajidi A (2007). Cellular mobile phone service and users' preferences in Quetta city. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 2(1):141-153.
Oliver RL (2014). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. Routledge, Abingdon, UK.
Page T (2013). Smartphone technology, consumer attachment and mass customisation. International Journal of Green Computing (IJGC), 4(2): 38-57.
Parasuraman A, Berry LL, and Zeithaml VA (1991). Perceived service quality as a customer‐based performance measure: An empirical examination of organizational barriers using an extended service quality model. Human Resource Management, 30(3): 335-364.
Park MC and Lee SW (2002). Double marginalization problems: Evidence from the Korean fixed-to-mobile service market. Telecommunications Policy, 26(11): 607-621.
Paulrajan R and Rajkumar H (2011). Service quality and customers preference of cellular mobile service providers. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 6(1): 38-45.

PTA (2013). Annual Report 2012-2013. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, Islamabad, Pakistan. Available online at:

PTA (2014). Annual Report 2013-2014. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, Islamabad, Pakistan. Available online at:

PTA (2017). Telecom Indicators. Pakistan Telecommuncation Authority, Islamabad, Pakistan. Available online at:

Rahman S, Haque A, and Ahmad MIS (2011). Choice criteria for mobile telecom operator: Empirical investigation among Malaysian customers. International Management Review, 7(1): 50-57
Ranaweera C and Andy N (2003). Some moderating effects on the service quality-customer retention link. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 23(2): 230-248.
Rapert MI and Wren BM (1998). Service quality as a competitive opportunity. Journal of Services Marketing, 12(3): 223-235.
Reinke TH (1998). Local number portability and local loop competition. Critical issues. Telecommunications Policy, 22(1): 73-87.
Sánchez BU and Asimakopoulos G (2012). Regulation and competition in the European mobile communications industry: An examination of the implementation of mobile number portability. Telecommunication Policy, 36(3): 187-196.
Shin DH and Kim WY (2007). Mobile number portability on customer switching behavior: In the case of the Korean mobile market. Info, Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, 9(4): 38-54.
Sutherland E (2007). Mobile number portability. Info- Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, 9(4): 10-24.
Uddin MB and Akhter B (2012). Customer satisfaction in mobile phone services in Bangladesh: A survey research. Management and Marketing-Craiova, 10(1): 20-36.
Varki S and Colgate M (2001). The role of price perceptions in an integrated model of behavioral intentions. Journal of Service Research, 3(3): 232-240.
Viard VB (2007). Do switching costs make markets more or less competitive? The case of 800 number portability. The RAND Journal of Economics, 38(1): 146-163.
Zeithaml VA, Berry LL, and Parasuraman A (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. The Journal of Marketing, 60(2): 31-46.