International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 4, Issue 3  (March 2017), Pages:  68-72

Title: A prototype development of visual perception diagnosis games for autism children

Author(s):  Helmi Adly Mohd Noor 1, *, Faaizah Shahbodin 2, Gede Pramudya Ananta 2, Cik Ku Nuraini Che Ku Mohd 2, Syarifah Nadiyah Razali 3, Mohd Sazali Khalid 4, Rahimah Kassim 1, Fauziah Abdul Rahman 1, Zirawani Baharum 1


1Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Malaysia
2Department of Interactive Media, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
3Kolej Komuniti Selandar, Melaka, Malaysia
4Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Full Text - PDF          XML


In order to minimize the negative effects of autism, early identification and diagnosis are the solutions to get students on the right road to dealing with the problems related to autism and overcoming them. The objective of this research is to develop serious games as a tool for special education teachers to diagnose visual perception problems in autistic students. The development of the visual perception diagnosis games is using the Chalfant diagnosis theory. These diagnostic tools show that it assist and help teachers to diagnose their autism students without the teachers needing to have some experience and knowledge of diagnosing visual perception. This prototype will be a high-tech solution to diagnosing visual perception problems designed for autistic children. 

© 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Autism, Autistic children, Serious games, Special education, Visual perception

Article History: Received 6 November 2016, Received in revised form 11 January 2017, Accepted 15 January 2017

Digital Object Identifier:


Noor HAM, Shahbodin F, Ananta GP, Mohd CKNCK, Razali SN, Khalid MS, Kassim R, Rahman FA, and Baharum Z (2017). A prototype development of visual perception diagnosis games for autism children. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 68-72


Abirached B, Zhang Y, and Park J (2012). Understanding user needs for serious games for teaching children with autism spectrum disorders emotions. In the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. AACE, Denver, Canada: 1054-1063.
Al-Khafaji N, Al-Shaher M, and Al-Khafaji M (2013). M-learning application for autistic children using Android platform. In the Future Trends in Computing and Communication: 16-19.
Artoni S, Buzzi MC, Buzzi M, Ceccarelli F, Fenili C, Rapisarda B, and Tesconi M (2012). Designing ABA-based software for low-functioning autistic children. In the 2nd International Conference on Advances in New Technologies, Interactive Interfaces and Communicability (ADNTIIC'11). Huerta Grande, Argentina: 230-242.
Bai Z (2012). Augmenting imagination for children with autism. In the 11th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children. ACM, New York, USA: 327-330.
Bartoli L, Corradi C, Garzotto F, and Valoriani M (2013). Exploring motion-based touchless games for autistic children's learning. In the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC '13). New York, USA: 102-111.
Bartolome NA, Zorrilla AM, and Zapirain BG (2013). Autism spectrum disorder children interaction skills measurement using computer games. In the 18th International Conference on Computer Games: AI, Animation, Mobile, Interactive Multimedia, Educational and Serious Games (CGAMES). IEEE: 207-211.
Bereznak S, Ayres K, Mechling L, and Alexander J (2012). Video self-prompting and mobile technology to increase daily living and vocational independence for students with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24(3): 269-285.
Bertacchini F, Bilotta E, Gabriele L, Vizueta DE, Pantano P, Rosa F, Tavernise A, Vena S, and Valenti A (2013). An emotional learning environment for subjects with autism spectrum disorder. In the International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL). IEEE, Kazan, Russia: 653-659.
Billstedt E and Gillberg C (2005). Autism after adolescense: Population-based 13-22-year follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism diagnosed in childhood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3): 351-360.
Chen C (2013). Developing a tablet computer game with visual-spatial concept jigsaw puzzles for autistic children. Available online at:
Chukoskie L, Soomro A, Townsend J, and Westerfield M (2013). Looking' better: Designing an at-home gaze training system for children with ASD. In the 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER). IEEE, San Diego, USA: 1246-1249.
Clark CA (1970). Serious games. Viking Press, New York, USA.
De Urturi ZS, Zorrilla AM, and Zapirain BG (2012). A serious game for Android devices to help educate individuals with autism on basic first aid. In: Sigeru O, Juan FDPS, Sara RG, Jose MM, Ana MB, and Juan MCR, (Eds.), Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 151: 609-616. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany.
Eaves LC and Ho HH (2008). Young adult outcome of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(4): 739-747.
Hailpern J, Harris A, and La B (2012). Designing visualizations to facilitate multisyllabic speech with children with autism and speech delays. In the Designing Interactive Systems Conference. ACM, New York, USA: 126-135.
Hansen OB, Abdurihim A, and McCallum S (2013). Emotion recognition for mobile devices with a potential use in serious games for autism spectrum disorder. In: Ma M, Oliveira MF, Petersen S, and Hauge JB (Eds.), International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications, 8101: 1-14. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany.
Helmi AMN, Faaizah S, and Naim CP (2012a). Serious game for autism children: Review of literature. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 6(4): 554-559.
Helmi AMN, Faaizah S, and Naim CP (2012b). A review of serious game for autism children. In the International Conference on Computer Games, Multimedia, and Allied Technology: 90-95.
Helmi AMN, Faaizah S, Naim CP, Nur FY, Mariana Y, Khoo LMS, and Kamaruzaman J (2013). Developing a hybrid visual perception game using the ADDIE approach for autism. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(3): 1-4.
Hourcade J, Bullock RN, and Hansen T (2012). Multitouch tablet applications and activities to enhance the social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 16(2): 157-168.
Howlin P, Goode S, Hutton J, and Rutter M (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(2): 212-229.
Hulusica V and Pistoljevic N (2012). LeFCA: Learning framework for children with autism. Procedia Computer Science, 15: 4-16.
Jain S, Tamersoy B, Zhang Y, Aggarwal JK, and Orvalho V (2012). An interactive game for teaching facial expressions to children with autism spectrum disorders. In the 5th International Symposium on Communications Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP). IEEE, Roma, Italy: 1-4.
Jercic P, Astor PJ, Adam MT, Hilborn O, Schaaff K, Lindley C, Sennersten C, and Eriksson J (2012). A serious game using physiological interfaces for emotion regulation training in the context of financial decision-making. In the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Barcelona, Spain: 207-221.
Kanner L (1967). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 35(4): 100-136.
Kurtz LA (2006). Visual perception problems in children with AD/HD, autism, and other learning disabilities: A guide for parents and professionals. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London, UK.
Piana S, Stagliano A, Camurri A, and Odone F (2013). A set of full-body movement features for emotion recognition to help children affected by autism spectrum condition. In the International Workshop on Intelligent Digital Games for Empowerment and Inclusion: 1-7.
Porayska PK, Anderson K, Bernardini S, Guldberg K, Smith T, Kossivaki L, Hodgins S and Lowe I (2013). Building an intelligent, authorable serious game for autistic children and their carers. In: Reid D, Katayose H, and Nijholt A (Eds.), Advances in Computer Entertainment, 8253: 456-475. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany.
Schuller B, Marchi E, Baron-Cohen S, O'Reilly H, Pigat D, Robinson P, Davies I, Golan O, Friedenson S, Tal S, Newman S, Meir N, Shillo R, Camurri A, Piana Stagliano AS, Bolte S, Lundqvist D, Berggren S, Baranger A, and Sullings N (2014). The state of play of ASC-inclusion: An integrated internet-based environment for social inclusion of children with autism spectrum conditions. In the 2nd International Workshop on Digital Games for Empowerment and Inclusion (IDGEI '14). ACM, Haifa, Israel.
Sharmin M, Rahman A, Ahmed M, Rahman M, and Ferdous S (2011). Teaching intelligible speech to the autistic children by interactive computer games. In the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC '11). TaiChung, Taiwan: 1208-1209.
Sicile KC (2004). Autism spectrum disorders: The complete guide to understanding autism. Berkley Publishing Group, New York, USA.
Wan NWA and Hisham A (2013). Aku bersyukur anakku autisme. Telaga Biru, Selangor, Malaysia.
Yan F (2011). A sunny day: Ann and Ron's world an Ipad application for children with autism. In the the 2nd international conference on Serious Games Development and Applications (SGDA'11). Lisbon, Portugal: 129-138.
Zancanaro M, Giusti L, Bauminger ZN, Eden S, Gal E, and Weiss PL (2014). NoProblem! A collaborative interface for teaching conversation skills to children with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. In: Anton N (Eds.), Playful User Interfaces: 209-224. Springer, Singapore.