International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 4, Issue 3  (March 2017), Pages:  122-129

Title: Relationship between principals’ emotional intelligence and instructional leadership practices in Malaysian secondary schools

Author(s):  Shafinaz A. Maulod 1, *, Chua Yan Piaw 1, Shahrin Alias 2, Leong Mei Wei 1


1Institute of Educational Leadership, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Institute Aminuddin Baki, Ministry of Education, 71760 Bandar Enstek, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Full Text - PDF          XML


School principal emotional intelligence is necessary to enable schools being led effectively due to the changes taking place in education system lately. This study aims to explore the relationship between principal emotional intelligence and instructional leadership practices in Malaysian secondary schools. This is a non-experimental quantitative research using survey technique through the administration of a set of questionnaire that compromised demographic variables, principal emotional intelligence competency and instructional leadership practices. 396 returned questionnaires have been analyzed in this research. The findings showed that teachers perceived their principals practice high level of instructional leadership and emotional intelligence competency. Furthermore, data indicated that there was statistically significant positive correlation which is strong between principal emotional intelligence and instructional leadership practices. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that relationship management, social awareness and self-awareness being the three emotional intelligence competencies that are statistically significant predictors of principal instructional leadership practices. The implications of this study could be used as a guide to school leaders in managing and controlling their emotions when dealing with the various parties to produce outstanding and excellence schools. 

© 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Instructional leadership, Educational leaders, Leadership

Article History: Received 8 November 2016, Received in revised form 15 January 2017, Accepted 18 January 2017

Digital Object Identifier:


Maulod SA, Piaw CY, Alias S, and Wei LM (2017). Relationship between principals’ emotional intelligence and instructional leadership practices in Malaysian secondary schools. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 122-129


Abdul GA (2007). Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness of school managers in Malaysia. Educationist, 1(2): 75-81.
Adeyemo DA (2008). Demographic characteristics and emotional intelligence among workers in some selected organisations In Oyo State, Nigeria. The Journal of Business Perspective, 2(1): 43-48.
Babbie E (2016). The basics of social research. Cengage Learning, Boston, USA.
Baldoni J (2012). The leaders pocket guide: 101 indispensible tools, tips and techniques for any situation. Barnes and Noble, New York, USA.
Beatty B (2007). Going through the emotions: Leadership that gets to the heart of school renewal. Australian Journal of Education, 51(3): 328-340.
Boyatzis RE, Goleman D, and HayGroup (2001). The Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). HayGroup, Boston, USA.
Byrne BM (2010). Structural equation modelling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Routledge, Manitoba, Canada.
Cliffe J (2011). Emotional intelligence: A study of female secondary school headteachers. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 39(2): 1-14.
Cook CR (2006). Effects of emotional intelligence on principals' leadership performance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Montana State University, Montana, USA.
Dinham S (2005). Principal leadership for outstanding educational outcomes. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(4): 338-356.
Goleman D (2000). Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam Books, New York, USA.
Goleman D (2001). The emotionally intelligent workplace. Bantam Books, New York, USA.
Goleman D, Boyatzis R, and McKee A (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA.
Hair JF, Anderson RE, Babin BJ, and Black WC (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
Hallinger P (2008). Methodologies for studying school leadership: A review of 25 years of research using the principal instructional management rating scale. In the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, USA: 1-48.
Hallinger P (2011). A review of two decades of research on the principalship using the principal instructional management rating scale. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2): 271-306.
Hallinger P (2012). Assessing and developing instructional leadership in schools. In: Shen J (Eds.), Tools for improving the principalship: 47–69. Peter Lang., Oxford, UK.
Hebert EB (2011). The relationship between emotional intelligence, transformational leadership and effectiveness in school principals. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.
Jameela BA (2012). Instructional leadership practices among Pahang state school principals: A qualitative study. Ph.D. Dissertation, National University of Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
Juhana Z (2007). Relationship between principal workload and instructional leadership practices in Muar district secondary schools. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Technology Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
Mendels P (2012). The effective principal: 5 pivotal practices that shape instructional leadership. Journal of Staff Development, 33(1): 54-58.
Mohd AY (2004). Emotional intelligence competencies and the impact on organizational effectiveness. Jurnal Pengurusan Awam, 3(1): 21-26.
Mohd HH (2005). Emotional intelligence profile of secondary school principals in Kota Baharu, Kelantan. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Munroe MD (2009). Correlation of emotional intelligence and instructional leadership behaviors. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
Najibah MD (2015). Job satisfaction and its relationship with emotional intelligence. Ph.D. Thesis, Northern University of Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia.
Nik MMA, Mohd RT, Hazlina J, Wan ARMS, and Mohd NO (2015). Principals' Instructional Leadership and Teachers' Commitment in Three Mara Junior Science Colleges (Mjsc) in Pahang, Malaysia. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191: 1848-1853.
Nik RI (2013). Effect of emotional intelligence competence behaviour towards transformational leadership style of cooperative committee in Selangor schools. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Nurul HMN, Maarof R, Hanina H, and Ibrani AA (2013). Model fitness on emotional intelligence, personality traits and leadership behavior on job performances. Jurnal Teknologi, 61(1): 47-55.
Palmer B, Walls M, Burgess Z, and Stough C (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 22(1): 5-10.
Prati IM (2004). Emotional intelligence as facilitator of emotional labour process. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Florida State University College of Business, USA.
Rahimah A and Ghavifekr S (2014). School leadership for the 21st century: A conceptual review. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 2(1): 48-61.
Rosmaniar W and Marzuki SCBH (2016). Headmaster instructional leadership and organizational learning on the quality of madrasah and the quality of graduates the State Madrasah Aliyah at Jakarta capital region. Higher Education Studies, 6(1): 159-168.
Rowena M (2014). EQ, not just IQ: The relationship between emotional intelligence and the success of high school principals who have been awarded the Illinois Principals Association's high school principal of the year award. Ph.D. Dissertation, Loyola University Chicago, USA.
Sekhu MS (2011). Practices of primary school principals as instructional leaders: Implications for learner achievement. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Simin G, Ibrahim MS, Chellapan K, Sukumaran K, and Subramaniam A (2015). Instructional leadership practices of principal in vocational and technical college: Teachers' perception. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 3(1): 48-67.
Singh D (2006). Emotional intelligence at work: a professional guide. Response Book, New Delhi, India.
Singh P and Dali CM (2013). Need for emotional intelligence to develop principals' social skills. African Education Review, 10(3): 502-519.
Sun H, Wang X, and Sharma S (2014). A study on effective principal leadership factors in China. International Journal of Educational Management, 28(6): 716-727.
Syarif H (2014). Analysis of the emotional intelligence influences, leadership style and interpersonal communication on the decision making by principals of state junior high schools in South Jakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology, 3(4): 22-30.
Tschannen MM and Gareis CR (2015). Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredients in high-performing schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(1): 66-92.
Wong CS and Law KS (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly, 13(3): 243-274.
Yulk G (2013). Leadership in organizations. Pearson, New York, USA.
Zepeda SJ (2006). High-stakes supervisions: We must do more. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 9(1): 61-73.