International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 4, Issue 3  (March 2017), Pages:  1-6

Title: Mechanical properties of recycled glass fibre reinforced nanoclay/unsaturated polyester composites

Author(s):  Umar Abdul Hanan 1, Shukur Abu Hassan 1, 2, *, Mat Uzir Wahit 2, 3, Rohana Yusof 4, Balqis Omar 5, Siti Khalijah Jamal 1


1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2Centre for Composites, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
3Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
4Institute of Industrial Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian, 81750 Bandar Seri Alam, Johor, Malaysia
5Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Full Text - PDF          XML


The purpose of this study is to study the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) nanofiller on the mechanical properties of glass fibre recyclates (rGF) reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP) composites. Alumina-silicates nanoclay such as MMT can improves the mechanical performance of polymeric composites. This study uses the mechanical recycling process to grind the GFRP waste into recyclates. MMT nanoclay was dispersed into UP using ultrasonicator. Different weight percentage of rGF at 25 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% were mixed in UP-MMT resin and formed into composites plate using compression moulding. Preliminary study shows that, the tensile strength of 25 wt.% raw rGF-UP composites was approximately 50% lower than of UP. Therefore, raw rGF was sieved into coarse and fine grade to improve the tensile properties of the composites. Compared to raw rGF, sieved rGF has better tensile strength due to better fibre distribution of rGF and uniformed fibre length. Coarse rGF composites which contain relatively larger aspect ratio (longer fibre length) have better tensile properties than fine rGF. The inclusion of MMT nanofiller in polyester resin enables the tensile strength of the composites to increase. For example, the tensile strength of 40 wt.% fine rGF-3 wt.% MMT hybrid composites is higher by 14% than the non-hybrid 40 wt.% fine rGF. Scanning electron microscopy shows good fibre/resin adhesion for MMT below 3 wt.%. While at 5 wt.% MMT, the UP resin becomes degraded and developed poor adhesion of resin to the recyclate fibres. 

© 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Mechanical recycling, MMT nanoclay, GFRP recyclates, Tensile properties, Scanning electron microscopy

Article History: Received 4 November 2016, Received in revised form 5 January 2017, Accepted 5 January 2017

Digital Object Identifier:


Hanan UA, Hassan SA, Wahit MU, Yusof R, Omar B, and Jamal SK (2017). Mechanical properties of recycled glass fibre reinforced nanoclay/unsaturated polyester composites. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 1-6


Asmatulu E, Twomey J, and Overcash M (2014). Recycling of fiber-reinforced composites and direct structural composite recycling concept. Journal of Composite Materials, 48(5): 593-608.
Bernasconi A, Rossin D, and Armanni C (2007). Analysis of the effect of mechanical recycling upon tensile strength of a short glass fibre reinforced polyamide 6,6. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 74(4): 627-641.
Goodship V (2009). Management, recycling and reuse of waste composites. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
Johnson AF (1979). Engineering design properties of GRP. No. 215/2 6-79 Monograph, Transport Research Laboratory, Berkshire, UK.
Kao CC, Ghita OR, Hallam KR, Heard PJ, and Evans KE (2012). Mechanical studies of single glass fibres recycled from hydrolysis process using sub-critical water. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43(3): 398-406.
Karippal JJ, Murthy HN, Rai KS, Sreejith M, and Krishna M (2011). Study of mechanical properties of epoxy/glass/nanoclay hybrid composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 45(18): 1893-1899.
Kaynak C, Nakas GI, and Isitman NA (2009). Mechanical properties, flammability and char morphology of epoxy resin/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Applied Clay Science, 46(3): 319-324.
Kornmann X, Berglund LA, Sterte J, and Giannelis EP (1998). Nanocomposites based on montmorillonite and unsaturated polyester. Polymer Engineering and Science, 38(8): 1351-1358.

Kusmono K and Mohd IZA (2013). Effect of clay addition on mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester/glass fiber composites. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2013: Article ID 797109, 7 pages. 797109.

Morote-Martinez V, Torregrosa-Coque R, and Martin-Martinez JM (2011). Addition of unmodified nanoclay to improve the performance of unsaturated polyester resin coating on natural stone. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 31(3): 154-163.
Otheguy ME, Gibson AG, Findon E, Cripps RM, Mendoza AO, and Castro MA (2009). Recycling of end-of-life thermoplastic composite boats. Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 38(9-10): 406-411.
Ozkoc G, Bayram G, and Tiesnitsch J (2008). Microcompounding of organoclay-ABS/PA6 blend-based nanocomposites. Polymer Composites, 29(4): 345-356.
Palmer JAT (2009). Mechanical recycling of automotive composites for use as reinforcement in thermoset composites. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
Parvinzadeh M, Moradian S, Rashidi A, and Yazdanshenas ME (2010). Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites. Applied Surface Science, 256(9): 2792-2802.
Shokrieh MM, Kefayati AR, and Chitsazzadeh M (2012). Fabrication and mechanical properties of clay/epoxy nanocomposite and its polymer concrete. Materials and Design, 40: 443-452.
Yang Y, Boom R, Irion B, van Heerden DJ, Kuiper P, and de Wit H (2012). Recycling of composite materials. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 51: 53-68.