International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 4, Issue 3  (March 2017), Pages:  7-12

Title: A confirmatory factor analysis of the attitude towards mathematics scale using multiply imputed datasets

Author(s):  Aszunarni Ayob *, Ruhizan M. Yassin


Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

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This study re-examined, via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) method, construct validity of PISA 2012 attitude towards mathematics scale using multiply imputed datasets. Data for this study were drawn from the Malaysian sample of PISA 2012. Specifically, 4247 students from 135 Malaysian secondary schools were used as sample in this study. Prior to conducting the CFA, missing data resulted from questionnaire rotation design were multiply imputed using predictive mean matching (PMM) method via R-package Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE). Subsequently, Mardia’s multivariate normality test was performed using R-package MVN. Since the attitude towards Mathematics scale was hypothesized to consist of ten constructs, a ten-factor congeneric CFA model was then built using R-package lavaan.survey, which incorporate both multiply imputed data and survey weights as well as non-normality of data through its Maximum Likelihood Robust estimation. After a few series of theory-guided model specification, several items with low loadings or cross-loadings, and construct with low in both Composite Reliability (CR) and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) were eliminated. Through examination of various goodness-of-fit indices, results indicated that the final nine-factor congeneric CFA model provided good fit to the data. 

© 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Multiple imputation, Confirmatory factor analysis, Maximum likelihood robust, Validity, Reliability

Article History: Received 5 November 2016, Received in revised form 15 January 2017, Accepted 15 January 2017

Digital Object Identifier:


Ayob A, Yassin RM (2017). A confirmatory factor analysis of the attitude towards mathematics scale using multiply imputed datasets. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 7-12


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