International journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN:2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 4, Issue 12 (December 2017), Pages: 94-99


 Original Research Paper

 Title: Load-balanced parallel architectures for 2-D water quality model PARATUNA-WQ on OpenMP

 Author(s): Wai Kiat Tan 1, 2, *, Hock Lye Koh 1, Su Yean Teh 2


 1School of Mathematical Sciences, Sunway University, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Selangor, Malaysia
 2School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
 3Jeffrey Sachs Center on Sustainable Development (JSC), Sunway University, Jalan Universiti, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia

 Full Text - PDF          XML


Because of the potential speedup, parallel algorithms have recently been developed for improving serial applications in ocean and coastal hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. Developing a parallel program, however, is a difficult task that requires special and expensive processing resources. Motivated by the potential benefits of parallelization, this paper develops a load-balanced parallel architecture on OpenMP to improve on an in-house serial two-dimensional water quality simulation model to a parallel application named PARATUNA-WQ. Analysis of the performance of speedup is discussed to justify the use of parallel architecture in water quality simulation model. Speedup achieved by PARATUNA-WQ is close to the maximum theoretical speedup predicted by the Amdahl Law. Further enhancement for application to very large computational domain consisting of 25 million computational nodes is possible by integrating MPI architecture into the framework of OpenMP, the result of which will be reported in a subsequent paper. 

 © 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: PARATUNA-WQ, Water quality simulation model, Environmental sustainability, OpenMP, High performance computing

 Article History: Received 15 March 2017, Received in revised form 10 August 2017, Accepted 15 September 2017

 Digital Object Identifier:


 Tan WK, Koh HL, and Teh SY (2017). Load-balanced parallel architectures for 2-D water quality model PARATUNA-WQ on OpenMP. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(12): 94-99

 Permanent Link:


 References (18)

  1. Chong MSL, Teh SY, and Koh HL (2016). TUNA-WQ simulation of suspended sediments transport. In: Salleh S, Aris NA, Bahar A, Zainuddin ZM, Maan N, Lee MH, and Yusof YM (Eds.), American Institute of Physics (AIP) Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing, 1750(1). 
  2. Dongarra J, Fox G, Kennedy K, White A, Foster I, Gropp W, and Torczon L (2003). Sourcebook of parallel computing. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Burlington, USA.  PMid:14587847     
  3. El-Nashar AI (2011). To parallelize or not to parallelize, speed up issue. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, 2(2): 14-28. 
  4. Hervouet JM (2007). Hydrodynamics of free surface flows: Modelling with the finite element method. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, USA. 
  5. Kathavate S and Srinath NK (2014). Efficiency of parallel algorithms on multi core systems using openmp. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 3(10): 8237-8241. 
  6. Koh HL, Teh SY, Liu PLF, Ismail AIM, and Lee HL (2009). Simulation of Andaman 2004 Tsunami for assessing impact on Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36(1): 74-83. 
  7. Liu GR and Liu MB (2003). Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: A meshfree particle method. World Scientific, Singapore, Singapore. 
  8. Moulinec C, Denis C, Pham CT, Rouge D, Hervouet JM, Razafindrakoto E, Barber RW, Emerson DR, and Gu XJ (2011). TELEMAC: An efficient hydrodynamics suite for massively parallel architectures. Computers and Fluids, 51(1): 30-34. 
  9. Padua D (2011). Encyclopedia of parallel computing. Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin, Germany. 
  10. Pirozzi MA (1997). Numerical simulation of fluid dynamic problems on distributed memory parallel computers. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 9(10): 989-998.<989::AID-CPE313>3.0.CO;2-8 
  11. Pirozzi MA and Zicarelli M (2000). Environmental modeling on massively parallel computers. Environmental Modeling and Software, 15(5): 489-496. 
  12. Sharma SK and Gupta K (2012). Performance analysis of parallel algorithms on multi-core system using openmp. International Journal of Computer Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, 2(5): 55-64.     
  13. Teh SY, Koh HL, Liu PLF, Izani AMI, and Lee HL (2009). Analytical and numerical simulation of tsunami mitigation by mangroves in Penang, Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36(1): 38-46. 
  14. Wang D, Long H, and Wang Z (2012). A load-balanced parallel algorithm of smooth particle hydrodynamics. In the 16th International Conference on Internet Computing for Science and Engineering (ICICSE'12), IEEE, Henan, China, 193-197. 
  15. Wang J and Zhang M (2009). Parallel computer technology study on 2D numerical model of flow and sediment in rivers. Journal of Waterway and Harbor, 30: 222-225.     
  16. Wenlong C, Yingbiao S, Xiuguang W, Zhiyong L, and Rongsheng W (2014). Parallel computer technology study on hydrodynamic and sediment transport mathematical model in estuaries based on MPI. In the 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Applications to Business, Engineering and Science (DCABES'14), IEEE, Xian Ning, China: 42-45. 
  17. Yang C and Cai XC (2011). A parallel well-balanced finite volume method for shallow water equations with topography on the cubed-sphere. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 235(18): 5357-5366. 
  18. Yu CS, Berlamont J, Embrechts H, and Roose D (1998). Modeling coastal sediment transport on a parallel computer. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 23(5): 497-504.