International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Volume 3, Issue 9  (September 2016), Pages:  51-58

Title: Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of steer-by-wire system in automotive vehicle

Author(s):  Mohd Zubir Amir, Md Fahmi Abd Samad *


Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

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Field test approach of steer-by-wire (SBW) technologies by using actual vehicle can be very dangerous. This is due to the fact that stability of the vehicle is very sensitive to the steering wheel input. Less optimum parameters of the steering controllers or system failure may lead to dangerous road accident. In this study, hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HiLS) is used to bridge the gap between simulation and experimentation of SBW system. In the proposed HiLS system, SBW test rig is set up to communicate in real time with 14 degree-of-freedom vehicle model. Proportional-integral-derivative control optimized with Ziegler-Nichols method is used to control the stepper motor of the SBW test rig. From simulation and experimental results, SBW system developed has the ability to closely follow the steering trajectory of the conventional steering system with acceptable errors. By using HiLS, both controller algorithm and the functionality of the steering actuator of SBW system can be tested in a semi-real driving condition as preliminary testing. 

© 2016 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Steer-by-wire, Hardware-in-the-loop simulation, Position tracking control, Steering system, Steer test

Article History: Received 25 June 2016, Received in revised form 27 August 2016, Accepted 20 September 2016

Digital Object Identifier:


Amir MZ and Samad MFA (2016). Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of steer-by-wire system in automotive vehicle. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(9): 51-58


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