International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN:2313-626X

Volume 3, Issue 7  (July 2016), Pages:  75-80

Title: Degradation due to ageing in extraction steam piping of a nuclear power plant

Authors:  Owais Ahmed Waseem 1, 2, Waqas Ahmed Waseem 3, Mahmood Khan 4, Anwar Ul Hasson Syed 2, *


1Nuclear Fuel Materials Laboratory, Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2Karachi Institute of Power Engineering, Karachi, Pakistan
3University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
4National Center for Non‚ÄźDestructive Testing, Islamabad, Pakistan

Full Text - PDF          XML


Ageing assessment of extraction steam piping, which was limited to wall loss and corrosion, has been extended to microstructural degradation in this paper. Metallography, radiography, ultrasonic thickness and hardness measurements have been carried out for examining the virgin and twelve years old Seamless Carbon Steel SA 106B pipe in this study. In addition to commonly observed degradation mechanisms i.e. pitting and wall thinning, microstructural degradation has also been observed. The transformation of bands of pearlite and ferrite phases, present in virgin microstructure, into uniformly distributed pearlite and irregularly distribute graphite nodules have been observed due to ageing. The depletion of pearlite phase from 40% to 25% and consequent reduction in hardness up to 20.4% maximum has been observed. The more reduction in hardness of internal surface has been observed as it comes in direct contact with steam. Due to microstructural degradation with simultaneous pitting, wall thinning and reduction in mechanical properties, frequent inspection has been suggested. 

© 2016 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Aging, Steel, Power plant, Microstructures,Corrosion

Article History: Received 27 May 2016, Received in revised form 26 July 2016, Accepted 26 July 2016

Digital Object Identifier:


Waseem OA, Waseem WA, Khan M,  Syed AH (2016). Degradation due to ageing in extraction steam piping of a nuclear power plant. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(7): 75-80


Bai G, Lu S, Li D and Li Y (2016). Influences of niobium and solution treatment temperature on pitting corrosion behaviour of stabilised austenitic stainless steels. Corrosion Science, 108: 111-124.
Braverman JI, DeGrassi G, Hofmayer C, Martinez-Guridi G and Morante R (2005). Risk-Informed assessment of degraded buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. NUREG/CR-6876, BNL-NUREG-74000-2005. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Washington DC, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, USA.
Caballero FG, García-Junceda A, Capdevila C and García de Andrés C (2006). Evolution of microstructural banding during the manufacturing process of dual phase steels. Materials transactions, 47(9): 2269-2276.
Callister WD and Rethwisch DG (2007). Materials science and engineering: an introduction. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 7th Edition, New York, USA: 7: 665-715
Deng B, Wang Z, Jiang Y, Wang H, Gao J and Li J (2009). Evaluation of localized corrosion in duplex stainless steel aged at 850 C with critical pitting temperature measurement. Electrochimica Acta, 54(10): 2790-2794.
Furtado HC and May IL (2004). High temperature degradation in power plants and refineries. Materials Research, 7(1): 103-110.
Ginzel RK and Kanters WA (2002). Pipeline corrosion and cracking and the associated calibration considerations for same side sizing applications. NDT. net, 7(07): 1435-4934.
Gonzaga RA, Landa PM, Perez A and Villanueva P (2009). Mechanical properties dependency of the pearlite content of ductile irons. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 33(2): 150-158.
Hänninen H (2009). Material development in new reactor designs–Gen III and SCWR concept. 20th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology (SMiRT), Dipoli Congress Centre, Espoo, Finland.
IAEA Nuclear Energy Series (2009). Integrity of reactor pressure vessels in nuclear power plants: Assessment of irradiation embrittlement effects in reactor pressure vessels steels. No. NP-T-3.11, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, Vienna, Austria,
Ivanova YP, Partalin TA and Tabakova BM (2012). Evaluation of Material Degradation in Steam Pipelines. 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, South Africa.
Mansoor M and Ejaz N (2009). Prediction of in-service microstructural degradation of A106 steel using eddy current technique. Materials Characterization, 60(12): 1591-1596.
Misiolek WZ and Sikka VK (2006). Physical and numerical analysis of extrusion process for production of bimetallic tubes (No. ORNL/TM-2006/72). Lehigh University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Tennessee, USA.
Ossai CI, Boswell B, and Davies I (2016). Markov chain modelling for time evolution of internal pitting corrosion distribution of oil and gas pipelines. Engineering Failure Analysis, 60: 209-228.
Sidharth AAP (2009). Effect of pitting corrosion on ultimate strength and buckling strength of plate-a review. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 4(4): 783-788.
U.S.NRC (2009). License Renewal Application. Three mile island nuclear station unit 1. Facility Operating License No. DPR-50. Availavble online at:
Umer MA, Lee D, Waseem OA, Ryu HJ and Hong SH (2016). Fabrication of protective-coated SiC reinforced tungsten matrix composites with reduced reaction phases by spark plasma sintering. Metals and Materials International, 22(3): 493-500.
Waseem OA and Ryu HJ (2016). Tungsten-Based Composites for Nuclear Fusion Applications. In Abdel Rahman AO and Mostafa Saleh HE-D (Eds.), Nuclear Material Performance. InTech, Available online at: