International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences

Int. j. adv. appl. sci.

EISSN: 2313-3724

Print ISSN:2313-626X

Volume 3, Issue 7  (July 2016), Pages:  11-17

Title: Modeling of parasitic effects in multi‐rotor hybrid aircrafts: Part‐I

Authors:  Ali Shahbaz Haider *, Riaz Ali, Qamar Aftab, Muhammad Asim, Tayyab Akram

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of IT, Wah, Pakistan

Full Text - PDF          XML


This article presents the detailed modeling and analysis of the precession and the gyroscopic parasitic effects that creep into the dynamics of multi-rotor hybrid aircraft during transient and steady state flight conditions. The term “parasitic” collectively refer to undesirable effects such as coriolis, centripetal and centrifugal acceleration; gyroscopic moments, rotor tilt reaction moment, inertial counter torques, frictional moments and air drag moments, precession moments etc. These effects are the major source of nonlinearity and coupling in the dynamics of aircraft. The hybrid aircraft combines the features of the hovercraft and the wing craft. A Tee configuration tri-rotor hybrid aircraft with the tilt-rotor and the tilt-wing mechanism would be taken into account and the parasitic precession moments and the gyroscopic moments would be modeled for it in the detail, in a way that this analysis could easily be extended to multi-rotor hybrid craft with the different number of rotors in any given configuration. 

© 2016 The Authors. Published by IASE.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Keywords: Effects, Hybrid aircrafts, VTOL, T-Copter, Parasitic presession, Gyroscopic moment

Article History: Received 20 May 2016, Received in revised form 7 July 2016, Accepted 8 July 2016

Digital Object Identifier:


Shahbaz Haider A, Ali R, Aftab Q, Asim M, and Akram T (2016). Modeling of parasitic effects in multi‐rotor hybrid aircrafts: Part‐I. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(7):11-17


Etkin B (1959). Dynamics of flight. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, USA.
Goel R, Shah SM, Gupta NK and Ananthkrishnan N. (2009). Modeling, simulation and flight testing of an autonomous quadrotor. Proceedings of ICEAE, Indian Institute of Science, India: 1-7.
Haider A and Sajjad M (2012). Structural design and non-linear modeling of a highly stable multi-rotor hovercraft. Control Theory and Informatics, 2(4): 24-35.
Johnson W (2012). Helicopter theory. Courier Corporation. North Chelmsford, USA.
Kendoul F, Fantoni I and Lozano R (2005, December). Modeling and control of a small autonomous aircraft having two tilting rotors. InProceedings of the 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE: 8144-8147.
Leishman JG (2006). Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Partovi AR, Xinhua W, Lum KY and Hai L (2011). Modeling and control of a small-scale hybrid aircraft. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 44(1): 10385–10390
Salazar-Cruz S, Kendoul F, Lozano R and Fantoni I (2008). Real-time stabilization of a small three-rotor aircraft. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 44(2): 783-794.
Zhang W and Brandt RD (1999). Robust hovering control of PVTOL aircraft. IEE Transactions on Control Systems Technologies, 7(3): 343-351.