International Journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2023), Pages: 63-75


 Review Paper

 Entrepreneurial intentions and perceived advantages by Eastern students


 Shujahat Ali 1, 2, Sevdie Alshiqi 3, *, Marcos Ferasso 4, Arbana Sahiti 5, Xhelil Bekteshi 6


 1Department of Banking and Finance, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur AJK, Pakistan
 2Department of Banking and Finance, UoK AJK, Kotli AJK, Pakistan
 3Department of Management and Informatics, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina,” Pristina, Kosovo
 4Department of Economic and Business Sciences, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa: Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
 5Department of Bank and Finance, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina,” Pristina, Kosovo
 6Development of Tourism, St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola, Bitola, North Macedonia

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


This study clarifies the student’s perspective in the disputed territory, to inculcate the influence of personality traits, moral obligation, entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial intentions, and these relationships mediated by perceived advantage. A framework for the judgment of entrepreneurial mindset in the context of disputed territory and special administrative zones is presented. The data was collected from Eastern students at four universities. The current survey was conducted using purposive sampling, and the sample size was 344 students from four different universities. The study used CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) for data analysis by using Smart PLS 3.2.9 and SPSS 26. The findings revealed the direct and indirect influence of personality traits entrepreneurial education and moral obligation on the intentions mediated by perceived advantage. Diversely, moral obligations do affect entrepreneurial intention in the presence of perceived advantage. The counterintuitive situation arises in the case of and helpful situation, where moral obligations are not playing role in the case of the disputed territory. The study contributes to enhancing the understanding of the entrepreneurial intention of university students in disputed territories. It brings into light the research agenda of entrepreneurship in disputed territories and special administrative areas. Specifically, the perceived advantage proved unique and verifiable intervening in the role between entrepreneurial education, personality traits, and the moral obligation with entrepreneurial intentions. This research supplies the basis for compatible academic and economic policy formulation. This study supplies a knowledge base for startups in special and disputed territories. It enhances innovation by making students fit their needs.

 © 2023 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Perceived advantage, Personality traits, Entrepreneurship education, Moral obligation, Entrepreneurial intentions

 Article History: Received 15 September 2022, Received in revised form 30 December 2022, Accepted 4 January 2023


No Acknowledgment.

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


 Ali S, Alshiqi S, Ferasso M, Sahiti A, and Bekteshi X (2023). Entrepreneurial intentions and perceived advantages by Eastern students. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 10(4): 63-75

 Permanent Link to this page


 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 


 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 


 References (89)

  1. Agolla JE, Monametsi GL, and Phera P (2019). Antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions amongst business students in a tertiary institution. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 13(2): 138-152.   [Google Scholar]
  2. Ajzen I (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2): 179-211.   [Google Scholar]
  3. Ajzen I (2015). The theory of planned behaviour is alive and well, and not ready to retire: A commentary on Sniehotta, Presseau, and Araújo-Soares. Health Psychology Review, 9(2): 131-137.   [Google Scholar] PMid:26209198
  4. Ali S, Lu W, and Wang W (2012). Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among the college students in China and Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(11): 13-21.   [Google Scholar]
  5. Ali S, Lu W, and Wang W (2013). Comparison of entrepreneurial intentions among college students in China and Pakistan. International Journal of Pluralism and Economics Education, 4(1): 51-60.   [Google Scholar]
  6. Anderson JC and Gerbing DW (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3): 411-423.   [Google Scholar]
  7. Baier K (1966). Moral obligation. American Philosophical Quarterly, 3(3): 210-226.   [Google Scholar]
  8. Bakotic D and Kruzic D (2010). Students’ perceptions and intentions towards entrepreneurship: The empirical findings from Croatia. The Business Review, 14(2): 209-215.   [Google Scholar]
  9. Bandura A and Walters RH (1977). Social learning theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  10. Beliaeva T, Ferasso M, Kraus S, and Damke EJ (2019). Dynamics of digital entrepreneurship and the innovation ecosystem: A multilevel perspective. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 26(2): 266-284.   [Google Scholar]
  11. Berge KL, Skar GB, Matre S, Solheim R, Evensen LS, Otnes H, and Thygesen R (2019). Introducing teachers to new semiotic tools for writing instruction and writing assessment: Consequences for students’ writing proficiency. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 26(1): 6-25.   [Google Scholar]
  12. Beugré C (2016). Social entrepreneurship: Managing the creation of social value. Routledge, London, UK.   [Google Scholar]
  13. Bonner NA, Teng JT, and Nerur S (2010). The perceived advantage of Agile development methodologies by software professionals: Testing an innovation-theoretic model. In the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems: Sustainable IT Collaboration around the Globe, Lima, Peru.   [Google Scholar]
  14. Chalik L and Dunham Y (2020). Beliefs about moral obligation structure children's social category‐based expectations. Child Development, 91(1): e108-e119.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30298909
  15. Chin WW (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In: Vinzi VE, Chin WW, Henseler J, and Wang H (Eds.), The handbook of partial least squares: 655-690. Springer, Berlin, Germany.   [Google Scholar]
  16. Cochran WG (1953). Sampling technique: Simple random sampling. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  17. Cohen-Chen S and Van Zomeren M (2018). Yes we can? Group efficacy beliefs predict collective action, but only when hope is high. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 77: 50-59.   [Google Scholar]
  18. Davis AC, Leppanen W, Mularczyk KP, Bedard T, and Stroink ML (2018). Systems thinkers express an elevated capacity for the allocentric components of cognitive and affective empathy. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 35(2): 216-229.   [Google Scholar]
  19. Elliott C, Mavriplis C, and Anis H (2020). An entrepreneurship education and peer mentoring program for women in STEM: Mentors’ experiences and perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intent. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 16: 43-67.   [Google Scholar]
  20. Erikson T (2002). Entrepreneurial capital: The emerging venture's most important asset and competitive advantage. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3): 275-290.   [Google Scholar]
  21. Esfandiar K, Sharifi-Tehrani M, Pratt S, and Altinay L (2019). Understanding entrepreneurial intentions: A developed integrated structural model approach. Journal of Business Research, 94: 172-182.   [Google Scholar]
  22. Etzioni A (1988). The moral dimension. Free Press, New York, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  23. Ferasso M and Saldanha JAV (2011). Entrepreneurship as way to contain the population exodus: A local development proposal. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 14(2): 205-229.   [Google Scholar]
  24. Ferreras-Garcia R, Hernández-Lara AB, and Serradell-López E (2019). Entrepreneurial competences in a higher education business plan course. Education+Training, 61(7/8): 850-869.   [Google Scholar]
  25. Fishbein M and Ajzen I (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-Hall, Hoboken, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  26. Fishbein M and Ajzen I (2011). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. Psychology Press, London, UK.   [Google Scholar]
  27. Fishbein ME (1967). Readings in attitude theory and measurement. Wiley, New York, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  28. Ganzach Y, Stirin K, Pazy A, and Eden D (2016). The joint effect of expectations and performance on efficacy beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, 88: 51-56.   [Google Scholar]
  29. George JM and Jones GR (1996). The experience of work and turnover intentions: Interactive effects of value attainment, job satisfaction, and positive mood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3): 318-325.   [Google Scholar] PMid:8690691
  30. Ghulam WA, Ali W, Ali S, Khan MM, Khan RNA and Farooq M (2019). Investigating factors influencing brain drain of citizens of Azad Kashmir Pakistan. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 5(3): 782-788.   [Google Scholar]
  31. Gorman G, Hanlon D, and King W (1997). Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management: A ten-year literature review. International Small Business Journal, 15(3): 56-77.   [Google Scholar]
  32. Hair JF (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Pearson Education India, Bengaluru, India.   [Google Scholar]
  33. Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, and Sarstedt M (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications, New York, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  34. Hair JF, Risher JJ, Sarstedt M, and Ringle CM (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1): 2-24.   [Google Scholar]
  35. Hsu DK, Burmeister-Lamp K, Simmons SA, Foo MD, Hong MC, and Pipes JD (2019). “I know I can, but I don't fit”: Perceived fit, self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Business Venturing, 34(2): 311-326.   [Google Scholar]
  36. Igwe PA, Madichie NO, and Newbery R (2018). Determinants of livelihood choices and artisanal entrepreneurship in Nigeria. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 25(4): 674-697.   [Google Scholar]
  37. Ip CY, Wu SC, Liu HC, and Liang C (2018). Social entrepreneurial intentions of students from Hong Kong. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 27(1): 47-64.   [Google Scholar]
  38. Jones C (2018). A signature pedagogy for entrepreneurship education. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 26(2): 243-254.   [Google Scholar]
  39. Jones C and English J (2004). A contemporary approach to entrepreneurship education. Education+training, 46(8/9): 416-423.   [Google Scholar]
  40. Jordan J, Leliveld MC, and Tenbrunsel AE (2015). The moral self-image scale: Measuring and understanding the malleability of the moral self. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 1878.   [Google Scholar]
  41. Karabey CN (2012). Understanding entrepreneurial cognition through thinking style, entrepreneurial alertness and risk preference: Do entrepreneurs differ from others? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58: 861-870.   [Google Scholar]
  42. Karimi S (2020). The role of entrepreneurial passion in the formation of students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Applied Economics, 52(3): 331-344.   [Google Scholar]
  43. Keinänen MM and Kairisto-Mertanen L (2019). Researching learning environments and students’ innovation competences. Education+Training, 6(1): 17-30.   [Google Scholar]
  44. Kleine K, Giones F, and Tegtmeier S (2019). The learning process in technology entrepreneurship education—Insights from an engineering degree. Journal of Small Business Management, 57(S1): 94-110.   [Google Scholar]
  45. Krueger Jr NF and Carsrud AL (1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: Applying the theory of planned behaviour. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5(4): 315-330.   [Google Scholar]
  46. Krueger Jr NF, Reilly MD, and Carsrud AL (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6): 411-432.   [Google Scholar]
  47. Langford M and Reeves TE (1998). The relationships between computer self-efficacy and personal characteristics of the beginning information systems student. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 38(4): 41-45.   [Google Scholar]
  48. Li K, Xu Y, Yang S, and Guo Y (2019). Social class, group-based anger, and collective action intentions in China. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 13(E13): 1-8.   [Google Scholar]
  49. Li Z, Li J, Chen J, and Vinig T (2020). Innovation with Chinese characteristics: Theory and practice. Chinese Management Studies.   [Google Scholar]
  50. Liñán F and Chen YW (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3): 593-617.   [Google Scholar]
  51. Lorz M and Volery T (2011). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention. University of St. Gallen, Gallen, Switzerland.   [Google Scholar]
  52. Lowore J (2020). Understanding the livelihood implications of reliable honey trade in the Miombo Woodlands in Zambia. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 3: 28.   [Google Scholar]
  53. Mathieu C and St-Jean É (2013). Entrepreneurial personality: The role of narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(5): 527-531.   [Google Scholar]
  54. Mimouni-Chaabane A and Volle P (2010). Perceived benefits of loyalty programs: Scale development and implications for relational strategies. Journal of Business Research, 63(1): 32-37.   [Google Scholar]
  55. Mustafa MJ, Hernandez E, Mahon C, and Chee LK (2016). Entrepreneurial intentions of university students in an emerging economy: The influence of university support and proactive personality on students’ entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 8(2): 162-179.   [Google Scholar]
  56. Nabi G and Liñán F (2013). Considering business start-up in recession time: The role of risk perception and economic context in shaping the entrepreneurial intent. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 19(6): 633-655.   [Google Scholar]
  57. Neneh BN (2019). From entrepreneurial alertness to entrepreneurial behavior: The role of trait competitiveness and proactive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 138: 273-279.   [Google Scholar]
  58. Nguyen AT, Do THH, Vu TBT, Dang KA, and Nguyen HL (2019). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions among youths in Vietnam. Children and Youth Services Review, 99: 186-193.   [Google Scholar]
  59. Nowiński W, Haddoud MY, Lančarič D, Egerová D, and Czeglédi C (2019). The impact of entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and gender on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in the Visegrad countries. Studies in Higher Education, 44(2): 361-379.   [Google Scholar]
  60. Nunally JC (1978). Psychometric theory. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  61. Obschonka M, Silbereisen RK, and Schmitt-Rodermund E (2010). Entrepreneurial intention as developmental outcome. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(1): 63-72.   [Google Scholar]
  62. Ochoa DP, Manalastas EJ, Deguchi M, and Louis WR (2019). Mobilising men: Ally identities and collective action in Japan and the Philippines. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 13(E14): 1-10.   [Google Scholar]
  63. Okolie UC, Nwajiuba CA, Binuomote MO, Ehiobuche C, Igu NCN, and Ajoke OS (2020). Career training with mentoring programs in higher education: Facilitating career development and employability of graduates. Education+Training, 62(3): 214-234.   [Google Scholar]
  64. Oosterbeek H, Van Praag M, and Ijsselstein A (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review, 54(3): 442-454.   [Google Scholar]
  65. Palalić R, Ramadani V, Ðilović A, Dizdarević A, and Ratten V (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions of university students: A case-based study. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 11(3): 393-413.   [Google Scholar]
  66. Prince MJ, Comas-Herrera A, Knapp M, Guerchet MM, and Karagiannidou M (2016). World Alzheimer report 2016-improving healthcare for people living with dementia: Coverage, quality and costs now and in the future. Alzheimer's Disease International, London, UK.   [Google Scholar]
  67. Ramos AM (2014). Entrepreneurial intentions among business students in Batangas State University. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(4): 1-6.   [Google Scholar]
  68. Reckers PM, Sanders DL, and Roark SJ (1994). The influence of ethical attitudes on taxpayer compliance. National Tax Journal, 47(4): 825-836.   [Google Scholar]
  69. Sabucedo JM, Dono M, Alzate M, and Seoane G (2018). The importance of protesters’ morals: Moral obligation as a key variable to understand collective action. Frontiers in Psychology, 9: 418.   [Google Scholar] PMid:29636720 PMCid:PMC5881521
  70. Sanchez G (2013). PLS path modeling with R. Trowchez Editions, Berkeley, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  71. Shahab Y, Chengang Y, Arbizu AD, and Haider MJ (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: Do entrepreneurial creativity and education matter? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 25(2): 259-280.   [Google Scholar]
  72. Shapero A and Sokol L (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. Available online at:
  73. Sherkat A and Chenari A (2022). Assessing the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in the universities of Tehran province based on an entrepreneurial intention model. Studies in Higher Education, 47(1): 97-115.   [Google Scholar]
  74. Simmons AL, Payne SC, and Pariyothorn MM (2014). The role of means efficacy when predicting creative performance. Creativity Research Journal, 26(1): 53-61.   [Google Scholar]
  75. Solesvik M, Westhead P, and Matlay H (2014). Cultural factors and entrepreneurial intention: The role of entrepreneurship education. Education+ Training, 56(8/9): 680-696.   [Google Scholar]
  76. Staufenbiel K, Lobinger B, and Strauss B (2015). Home advantage in soccer–A matter of expectations, goal setting and tactical decisions of coaches? Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(18): 1932-1941.   [Google Scholar] PMid:25743541
  77. Steyaert C and Katz J (2004). Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: Geographical, discursive and social dimensions. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 16(3): 179-196.   [Google Scholar]
  78. Stirin K, Ganzach Y, Pazy A, and Eden D (2012). The effect of perceived advantage and disadvantage on performance: The role of external efficacy. Applied Psychology, 61(1): 81-96.   [Google Scholar]
  79. Strauss B and Staufenbiel K (2015). Home advantage without being home: The effect of perceived advantage or disadvantage on basketball performance. Journal of Exercise, Movement, and Sport (SCAPPS refereed abstracts repository), 47(1): 127-127.   [Google Scholar]
  80. Tkachev A and Kolvereid L (1999). Self-employment intentions among Russian students. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 11(3): 269-280.   [Google Scholar]
  81. Tokar DM, Buchanan TS, Subich LM, Hall RJ, and Williams CM (2012). A structural examination of the learning experiences questionnaire. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(1): 50-66.   [Google Scholar]
  82. Wang J, Li Y, and Long D (2019). Gender gap in entrepreneurial growth ambition: The role of culturally contingent perceptions of the institutional environment in China. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 25(6): 1283-1307.   [Google Scholar]
  83. Welsh DH, Tullar WL, and Nemati H (2016). Entrepreneurship education: Process, method, or both? Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, 1(3): 125-132.   [Google Scholar]
  84. Wibisono S, Louis W, and Jetten J (2019). The role of religious fundamentalism in the intersection of national and religious identities. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 13(e12): 1-12.   [Google Scholar]
  85. Wood R and Bandura A (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3): 361-384.   [Google Scholar]
  86. Yang J (2013). The theory of planned behavior and prediction of entrepreneurial intention among Chinese undergraduates. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(3): 367-376.   [Google Scholar]
  87. Zeffane R (2013). Need for achievement, personality and entrepreneurial potential: A study of young adults in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 21(1): 75-105.   [Google Scholar]
  88. Zhao L and Jung HB (2017). The winning personality: Impact of founders’ personality traits and firms’ network relationships on Chinese apparel new venture performance. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 24(2): 553-573.   [Google Scholar]
  89. Zhou W, Yang X, Li Y, and Zhang Y (2019). Pattern versus level: A new look at the personality-entrepreneurship relationship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 25(1): 150-168.   [Google Scholar]