International Journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2023), Pages: 12-19


 Original Research Paper

 A study of the extended model of the theory of planned behavior using the perceived support model


 Muhammad Tahir *, Mohammed Kutpudeen


 College of Economics and Business Administration, University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Nizwa, Oman

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


There is a greater interest in understanding entrepreneurship intentions among youngsters and researchers frequently use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for this purpose. However, factors influencing the TPB components are little explored. Keeping in view the research gap, in the present study, the TPB model is extended based on the Perceived Support Model. Thus, the objective is to test the effects of the three dimensions (educational, relational, and structural) of the perceived support model on the components of the TPB. The study is based on a cross-sectional survey method of data collection and the sample consists of Omani youngsters in the age range of 18 to 30 years (n=662). The analysis includes Confirmatory Factor Analysis for establishing the reliability and validity; and path analysis for testing the hypotheses. The results show an insignificant influence of perceived educational support on all of the dimensions of the TPB; while a positive and significant influence of perceived relational support on all the dimensions of the TPB. Furthermore, the result shows a positive and significant influence of perceived structural support on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control have positive and significant effects on entrepreneurship intention. Overall, our result shows that the perceived support model can be used to understand entrepreneurial intentions as well as the components of TPB. A number of recommendations are made based on the findings of the study.

 © 2023 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Attitude, Norms, Support, Entrepreneurship, Oman

 Article History: Received 27 September 2022, Received in revised form 30 December 2022, Accepted 2 January 2023


The authors are thankful to the Research Council (TRC) and Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and Innovation, Sultanate of Oman for providing financial support for this study through Research Grant No: BFP/RGP/HER/21/014 for the TRC RG Call 2021. The authors are also thankful to the management of the University of Technology & Applied Sciences and the Research Committee for providing assistance in completing this study.

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Ethical consideration

For maintaining ethical integrity, no personal information is collected. The participants are clearly informed about the objective of the study and all participation is voluntary. The collected data is kept confidential and only used for this study.

 Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


 Tahir M and Kutpudeen M (2023). A study of the extended model of the theory of planned behavior using the perceived support model. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 10(4): 12-19

 Permanent Link to this page


 Fig. 1 


 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4


 References (30)

  1. Abebe MA, Gangadharan A, and Sutanonpaiboon J (2014). Perceived social support and social status as drivers of entrepreneurial career intentions between Caucasian and Mexican-American young adults. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 17(1): 63-81.   [Google Scholar]
  2. Ambad SNA and Damit DHDA (2016). Determinants of entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37: 108-114.   [Google Scholar]
  3. Chowdhury F, Audretsch DB, and Belitski M (2019). Institutions and entrepreneurship quality. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 43(1): 51-81.   [Google Scholar]
  4. Echchabi A, Omar MMS, and Ayedh AM (2020). Entrepreneurial intention among female university students in Oman. Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 12(4): 280-297.   [Google Scholar]
  5. Fizza S (2017). Measuring entrepreneurial intentions: Role of perceived support and personality characteristics. Department of Management Sciences, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.   [Google Scholar]
  6. Fornell C and Larcker DF (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50.   [Google Scholar]
  7. Fragoso R, Rocha-Junior W, and Xavier A (2020). Determinant factors of entrepreneurial intention among university students in Brazil and Portugal. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 32(1): 33-57.   [Google Scholar]
  8. Hassan H, Rahman MS, and Sade AB (2022). Discovering an entrepreneurial intention among youngsters. In the Eurasian Business and Economics Perspectives, Springer, Cham, Germany: 399-417.   [Google Scholar]
  9. Iqbal K, Siddiq A, and Jan MF (2018). Promotion of entrepreneurship intention among female students in Pakistan by utilizing the perceived support model and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Management Research, 4(1): 1-14.   [Google Scholar]
  10. Kaya HD (2019). Government support, entrepreneurial activity and firm growth. SocioEconomic Challenges, 3(3): 5-12.   [Google Scholar]
  11. Khayru RK, Nichen N, Chairunnas A, Safaruddin S, and Tahir M (2021). Study on the relationship between social support and entrepreneurship intention experienced by adolescents. Journal of Social Science Studies, 1(2): 47-51.   [Google Scholar]
  12. Krejcie RV and Morgan DW (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3): 607-610.   [Google Scholar]
  13. Liñán F and Chen YW (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3): 593-617.   [Google Scholar]
  14. Liñán F, Urbano D, and Guerrero M (2011). Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(3-4): 187-215.   [Google Scholar]
  15. Liu X, Lin C, Zhao G, and Zhao D (2019). Research on the effects of entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on college students’ entrepreneurial intention. Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 869.   [Google Scholar] PMid:31068862 PMCid:PMC6491517
  16. Lv Y, Chen Y, Sha Y, Wang J, An L, Chen T, and Huang L (2021). How entrepreneurship education at universities influences entrepreneurial intention: Mediating effect based on entrepreneurial competence. Frontiers in Psychology, 12: 655868.   [Google Scholar] PMid:34295281 PMCid:PMC8289882
  17. Mahendra AM, Djatmika ET, and Hermawan A (2017). The effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention mediated by motivation and attitude among management students, State University of Malang, Indonesia. International Education Studies, 10(9): 61-69.   [Google Scholar]
  18. Mahlaole ST and Malebana MJ (2021). The effects of entrepreneurship education on students' entrepreneurial intentions at a South African University of Technology. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 24: 1-16.   [Google Scholar]
  19. Martínez-González JA, Kobylinska U, García-Rodríguez FJ, and Nazarko L (2019). Antecedents of entrepreneurial intention among young people: Model and regional evidence. Sustainability, 11(24): 6993.   [Google Scholar]
  20. Meyer N and de Jongh J (2018). The importance of entrepreneurship as a contributing factor to economic growth and development: The case of selected European countries. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 10(4(J)): 287-299.   [Google Scholar]
  21. Miralles F, Giones F, and Riverola C (2016). Evaluating the impact of prior experience in entrepreneurial intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(3): 791-813.   [Google Scholar]
  22. Moussa NB and Kerkeni S (2021). The role of family environment in developing the entrepreneurial intention of young Tunisian students. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(1): 31-46.   [Google Scholar]
  23. Nakku VB, Agbola FW, Miles MP, and Mahmood A (2020). The interrelationship between SME government support programs, entrepreneurial orientation, and performance: A developing economy perspective. Journal of Small Business Management, 58(1): 2-31.   [Google Scholar]
  24. NCSI (2020). Population-data portal. National Centre for Statistics and Information, Muscat, Oman.  
  25. Nguyen T (2020). Impact of entrepreneurship environmental support factors to university students’ entrepreneurship self-efficacy. Management Science Letters, 10(6): 1321-1328.   [Google Scholar]
  26. Osorio AE, Settles A, and Shen T (2017). Does family support matter? The influence of support factors on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of college students. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 23(1): 24-43.   [Google Scholar]
  27. Schwarz EJ, Wdowiak MA, Almer‐Jarz DA, and Breitenecker RJ (2009). The effects of attitudes and perceived environment conditions on students' entrepreneurial intent: An Austrian perspective. Education+Training, 51(4): 272-291.   [Google Scholar]
  28. Shah N and Soomro BA (2017). Investigating entrepreneurial intention among public sector university students of Pakistan. Education+ Training, 59(7/8): 841-855.   [Google Scholar]
  29. Turker D and Selcuk SS (2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(2): 142-159.   [Google Scholar]
  30. Wu J and Si S (2018). Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship: Incentives, social networks, and sustainability. Asian Business and Management, 17(4): 243-259.   [Google Scholar]