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 Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2023), Pages: 6-11


 Original Research Paper

Efficacy of auditory integration therapy (AIT) on plasma syntaxin1A (STX1A) levels and amelioration of behavioral, social, and sensory symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)


 Laila Yousif Al-Ayadhi 1, 2, Nadra Elyass Elamin 2, *, Dost Muhammad Halepoto 2, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan 1


 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 2Autism Research and Treatment Center, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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 * Corresponding Author. 

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous research reported the beneficial effects of Auditory Integration Training (AIT) on a considerable range of behavior and learning problems. Limited studies examined the association between AIT and biological biomarkers in autistic subjects. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of auditory integrative train­ing on the plasma syntaxin1A protein (STX1A) level and also to assess its impact on behavioral, social, and sensory symptoms in autistic children, using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Total scores of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Short Sensory Profile (SSP) were calculated before one month and three months after AIT for all participants. Results show that the plasma level of STX1A was significantly increased immediately, one month, and three months after AIT (P<0.05). Moreover, Pearson correlation (r) values between STX1A levels before and after AIT shows strong and positive significant correlations between STX1A levels before AIT and immediately after AIT (r=0.594, p=0.01) and one month after AIT (r=0.819, p=0.01). Additionally, our results revealed that behavioral, social, and sensory symptoms were significantly improved in terms of disease severity three months after AIT (p<0.05). The study supports the usefulness of AIT as a therapeutic intervention to improve some measures of ASD such as symptoms. It may also induce the up-regulation of STX1A in plasma in ASD subjects. However, Additional research, on a larger size population, is necessary to evaluate the AIT effect on behavioral and social changes in ASD children, and the up-regulation of STX1A.

 © 2023 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Syntaxin1A, Auditory integration therapy, Synaptic proteins, Blood biomarkers

 Article History: Received 26 September 2022, Received in revised form 27 December 2022, Accepted 1 January 2023


We thank King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), National Plan for Science and Technology and Innovation (MAARIFAH), and Vice Deanship of Research Chairs, at King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for financial support (Award number: 08-MED 510-02).

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Ethical consideration

The present study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the College of Medicine at King Saud University, King Khalid Hospital. All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee, and with the most recent Helsinki Declaration. Informed written consent was obtained from the parents or the legal guardians of all subjects.

 Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


 Al-Ayadhi LY, Elamin NE, Halepoto DM, and Alhowikan AM (2023). Efficacy of auditory integration therapy (AIT) on plasma syntaxin1A (STX1A) levels and amelioration of behavioral, social, and sensory symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 10(4): 6-11

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