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EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

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 Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2022), Pages: 9-21


 Original Research Paper

 Title: Entrepreneurship in higher education: The key role of self-efficacy-A cross sectional study

 Author(s): José Ramalho 1, *, Carla Carvalho 1, Pedro Parreira 2, Eduardo Leite 3, Lisete Mónico 1, Anabela Salgueiro-Oliveira 2


 1Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Paço das Escolas, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
 2The Health Sciences Research Unit: Nursing (UICISA: E), Nursing School of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
 3Centro de Investigação, Desenvolvimento e Inovação em Turismo, University of Madeira, CiTUR, Funchal, Portugal

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 * Corresponding Author. 

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Entrepreneurship is the engine of a nation's economic, cultural, and social development. Since Higher Education Institutions play a crucial role, it is important to analyze the academy's entrepreneurial education effectiveness in promoting entrepreneurial intention amongst students. This study aims to analyze the effect of the education agenda of a Higher Education Institution on the students’ entrepreneurial intention, exploring the effect of self-efficacy as a mediator. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and non-experimental study was performed. A sample of 176 Portuguese higher education students fulfilled the “Entrepreneurial Motivations Survey,” which includes the HEInnovate Self-Assessment Scale, the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Entrepreneurial Intention Scale. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), AMOS, and PROCESS software. Through structural equation models, it was created a mediation model to assess the impact of the University education agenda on the entrepreneurial intention of the students. All scales showed adequate validity and reliability. The Faculty was not perceived as an entrepreneurial academy by the students. The results did not show a direct effect of the entrepreneurial education agenda on the students’ entrepreneurial intention. The effects emerged through self-efficacy, which plays a mediating effect between entrepreneurial education agenda on the students’ entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurship agenda didn’t directly influence the entrepreneurial intention. It is mandatory to offer a rich agenda in order to improve the students’ entrepreneurial competencies, preparing them to strive in the competitive market, in which self-efficacy plays an important role. 

 © 2022 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention, Higher education institutions, HEInnovate, Self-efficacy, Students entrepreneurial education

 Article History: Received 26 April 2021, Received in revised form 4 October 2021, Accepted 26 November 2021


No Acknowledgment.

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


 Ramalho J, Carvalho C, and Parreira P et al. (2022). Entrepreneurship in higher education: The key role of self-efficacy-A cross sectional study. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 9(2): 9-21

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