International Journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2021), Pages: 36-42


 Original Research Paper

 Title: Iron-based intermetallic particles formation in Al-Zn-Si alloy through powder metallurgy route

 Author(s): Abdul Khaliq *, I. A. Chaudhry, M. Boujelbene, Ayyaz Ahmad, I. Elbadawi


 College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


Corrosion of the steel products is one of the significant challenges which is managed by coating with Al-Zn-based alloys. The Galvalume alloy (Al-55%, 43.5%-Zn, Si-1.5%) is coated on steel strips via a hot-dipping process. The dissolution of iron (Fe) from steel strips and the formation of Fe-based intermetallic particles is an inevitable phenomenon during the hot-dip coating process. These intermetallic particles are a primary source of massive bottom dross build-up in the coating pot and metal spot defects in the coated steel products. Therefore, it is important to investigate the formation of Fe-based intermetallic particles. In this study, Fe-based intermetallic particles are produced via the powder metallurgy route. High energy ball milling was used for mechanical alloying of aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), silicon (Si), and zinc (Zn) powders. Optimized ball milling conditions were identified after a series of trials. After cold pressing, the mechanically alloyed samples (pellets) were sintered at various conditions in a high vacuum sintering furnace. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDS) were used for the analysis of raw material, mechanically alloyed powders, and sintered pellets. It is concluded that the mechanical alloying of 6h and cold pressing at 9 tons for 30 min is sufficient to produce a dense compact material. It was found that Fe-based intermetallic particles were successfully fabricated which were α-AlFeSi. However, intermetallic particles similar to those found in the bottom dross of the coating pot are difficult to fabricate through the powder metallurgy route due to the volatilization of Zn during the sintering process. 

 © 2021 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Al-Zn alloy, AlFeSi, Mechanical alloying, Sintering

 Article History: Received 27 April 2021, Received in revised form 21 July 2021, Accepted 24 September 2021


This research has been funded by Scientific Research Deanship at the University of Ha’il–Saudi Arabia through project number RG-191281.

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


 Khaliq A, Chaudhry IA, and Boujelbene M et al. (2021). Iron-based intermetallic particles formation in Al-Zn-Si alloy through powder metallurgy route. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 8(12): 36-42

 Permanent Link to this page


 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10


 Table 1 Table 2   


 References (14)

  1. Abro SH, Moria HA, Chandio A, and Al-Khazaal AZ (2020). Understanding the effect of Aluminium addition on forming the second phase particles on grain growth of micro-alloyed steel. Journal of Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research, 10(1): 5153-5156.   [Google Scholar]
  2. Carpenter KR, Dippenaar R, Phelan D, and Wexler D (2007). Synthesis of intermetallics based on the fe-al-si-zn alloy system by magneto-mechanical milling of ductile elemental powders. Advanced Materials Research, 15: 1032-1037.   [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen RY and Yuen D (2012). Microstructure and crystallography of Zn-55Al-1.6 Si coating spangle on steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 43(12): 4711-4723.   [Google Scholar]
  4. Elfghi MA and Gunay M (2020). Mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (Ti-6Al-4V) with hot isostatic pressing. Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research, 10(3): 5637-5642.   [Google Scholar]
  5. Khaliq A, Parker DJ, Setargew N, and Qian M (2020). Fabrication of the τ 5c intermetallic compound monoliths by a novel powder metallurgy and hot-dipping approach. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 51(2): 836-849.   [Google Scholar]
  6. Khaliq A, Parker DJ, Setargew N, Kondoh K, and Qian M (2021). Dissolution kinetics of iron-based intermetallic compounds (τ 5c IMCs) in a commercial steel strip metallic alloy coating process. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 52(1): 41-50.   [Google Scholar]
  7. Luo Q, Jin F, Li Q, Zhang JY, and Chou KC (2013). The mechanism of dross formation during hot-dip Al-Zn alloy coating process. Journal for Manufacturing Science & Production, 13(1-2): 85-89.   [Google Scholar]
  8. Marder AR (2000). The metallurgy of zinc-coated steel. Progress in Materials Science, 45(3): 191-271.   [Google Scholar]
  9. Masumoto H and Takebayashi H (1999). Bottom dross build-up in Al-Zinc coating bath. In the PacZAC 99, Kualalumpur, Malaysia.   [Google Scholar]
  10. Naeem K, Hussain A, and Abbas S (2019). A review of shaped charge variables for its optimum performance. Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research, 9(6): 4917-4924.   [Google Scholar]
  11. Peng W, Wu G, Lu R, Lian Q, and Zhang J (2019). The evaluation on corrosion resistance and dross formation of Zn–23 wt% Al–0.3 wt% Si–x wt% Mg alloy. Coatings, 9(3): 199.   [Google Scholar]
  12. Selverian JH, Notis MR, and Marder AR (1987). The microstructure of 55 w/o Al-Zn-Si (Galvalume) hot dip coatings. Journal of Materials Engineering, 9(2): 133-140.   [Google Scholar]
  13. Sheikhhasani H, Sabet H, and Abasi M (2016). Investigation of the effect of friction stir spot welding of BH galvanized steel plates on process parameters and weld mechanical properties. Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research, 6(5): 1149-1154.   [Google Scholar]
  14. Suryanarayana C (2001). Mechanical alloying and milling. Progress in Materials Science, 46(1-2): 1-184.   [Google Scholar]