International Journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2020), Pages: 105-116


 Review Paper

 Title: A review of the effect of waste tire rubber on the properties of ECC

 Author(s): Isyaka Abdulkadir 1, 2, *, Bashar S. Mohammed 1, M. S. Liew 1, Mohamed Mubarak Bin Abdul Wahab 1, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi 1, Sholihin As'ad 3


 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Malaysia
 2Civil Engineering Department, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
 3Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


Due to the growing concern over the adverse effect and threat posed by waste tire all over the world, researchers have over the last two decades focused attention on the use of rubber obtained from the waste tire in the form of crumb rubber (CR) or powdered rubber (PR) as a construction material by incorporating it in cementitious composites. Although there exists a lot of research on the use of CR/PR in cementitious composites, the only literature reviews available are on rubberized mortars and concrete but not on engineered cementitious composites (ECC). This paper aims at contributing towards filling this gap by reviewing relevant research works on the use of CR/PR in ECC. The effect of the tire rubber addition on the properties of the composite in fresh and hardened states have been comprehensively reported. The results revealed that the incorporation of tire rubber in ECC enhances the tensile ductility but negatively affects the compressive strength. 

 © 2020 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Rubberized ECC, Strain-hardening composite, Waste tire

 Article History: Received 2 December 2019, Received in revised form 1 May 2020, Accepted 4 May 2020


The authors would like to thank Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia, for the requisite support and assistance to accomplish this write-up.

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


 Abdulkadir I, Mohammed BS, and Liew MS et al. (2020). A review of the effect of waste tire rubber on the properties of ECC. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 7(8): 105-116

 Permanent Link to this page


 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 


 Table 1


 References (63)

  1. Achara BE, Mohammed BS, and Liew MS (2019). Bond behaviour of nano-silica-modified self-compacting engineered cementitious composite using response surface methodology. Construction and Building Materials, 224: 796-814.   [Google Scholar]
  2. Adamu M, Mohammed BS, Shafiq N, Liew MS, and Alaloul WS (2018). Effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the durability performance of high volume fly ash roller compacted concrete pavement. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5(10): 53-61.   [Google Scholar]
  3. Alaloul WS, Loganathan R, Mohammed BS, Hasan E, Nikbakht MSL, Khed V, and Adamu M (2018). Deformation properties of concrete containing crumb rubber as partial replacement to fine aggregate. Technology, 9(10): 317-326.   [Google Scholar]
  4. Al-Fakih A, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, and Alaloul WS (2018). Physical properties of the rubberized interlocking masonry brick. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(6): 656-664.   [Google Scholar]
  5. Al-Fakih A, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, and Nikbakht E (2019). Incorporation of waste materials in the manufacture of masonry bricks: An update review. Journal of Building Engineering, 21: 37-54.   [Google Scholar]
  6. Al-Fakih A, Wahab MA, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, Zawawi NAWA, and As' ad S (2020). Experimental study on axial compressive behavior of rubberized interlocking masonry walls. Journal of Building Engineering, 29: 101107.   [Google Scholar]
  7. Amador G, Rupnow TD, and Hassan M (2018). Evaluation of the performance and cost-effectiveness of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) produced from region 6 local materials. Materials Science.   [Google Scholar]
  8. Anwar A, Mohammed BS, bin Abdul Wahab M, and Liew MS (2019). Enhanced properties of cementitious composite tailored with graphene oxide nanomaterial: A review. Developments in the Built Environment, 1: 100002.   [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen CY and Lee MT (2019). Application of crumb rubber in cement-matrix composite. Materials, 12(3): 529.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30744212 PMCid:PMC6384849
  10. Chethan VR, Ramegowda M, Manohara HE (2015). Engineered cementitious composites: A review. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2(5): 144-149.   [Google Scholar]
  11. Gerges NN, Issa CA, and Fawaz SA (2018). Rubber concrete: Mechanical and dynamical properties. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 9: e00184.   [Google Scholar]
  12. Gonen T (2018). Freezing-thawing and impact resistance of concretes containing waste crumb rubbers. Construction and Building Materials, 177: 436-442.   [Google Scholar]
  13. Guo YC, Zhang JH, Chen GM, and Xie ZH (2014). Compressive behaviour of concrete structures incorporating recycled concrete aggregates, rubber crumb and reinforced with steel fibre, subjected to elevated temperatures. Journal of Cleaner Production, 72: 193-203.   [Google Scholar]
  14. Gupta T, Chaudhary S, and Sharma RK (2014). Assessment of mechanical and durability properties of concrete containing waste rubber tire as fine aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 73: 562-574.   [Google Scholar]
  15. Hadzima-Nyarko M, Nyarko EK, Ademović N, Miličević I, and Kalman Šipoš T (2019). Modelling the influence of waste rubber on compressive strength of concrete by artificial neural networks. Materials, 12(4): 561.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30781883 PMCid:PMC6416612
  16. Huang X, Ranade R, Ni W, and Li VC (2013). On the use of recycled tire rubber to develop low E-modulus ECC for durable concrete repairs. Construction and Building Materials, 46: 134-141.   [Google Scholar]
  17. Ismail MK, Sherir MA, Siad H, Hassan AA, and Lachemi M (2018). Properties of self-consolidating engineered cementitious composite modified with rubber. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(4): 04018031.   [Google Scholar]
  18. Kamal M, Khan SW, Shahzada K, and Alam M (2016). Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECC). International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering, 5: 40-45.   [Google Scholar]
  19. Khed VC, Mohammed BS, and Nuruddin MF (2018c). Effects of different crumb rubber sizes on the flowability and compressive strength of hybrid fibre reinforced ECC. In the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing, Langkawi, Malaysia: 140: 012137.   [Google Scholar]
  20. Khed VC, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, Alaloul WS, Adamu M, Al-Fakih A, and Karthikeyan J (2018b). Experimental investigation on pull-out strength of hybrid reinforcement of fibre in rubberized cementitious composites. Technology, 9(7): 1612-1622.   [Google Scholar]
  21. Khed VC, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, Alaloul WS, and Adamu M (2018a). Hybrid fibre rubberized ECC optimization for modulus of elasticity. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(7): 976-1928.   [Google Scholar]
  22. Khed VC, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, and Zawawi NAWA (2020). Development of response surface models for self-compacting hybrid fibre reinforced rubberized cementitious composite. Construction and Building Materials, 232: 117191.   [Google Scholar]
  23. Li VC (2008). Engineered cementitious composites (ECC) material, structural, and durability performance. In: Nawy E (Ed.) Concrete construction engineering handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  24. Li VC, Wang S, and Wu C (2001). Tensile strain-hardening behavior of polyvinyl alcohol engineered cementitious composite (PVA-ECC). ACI Materials Journal-American Concrete Institute, 98(6): 483-492.   [Google Scholar]
  25. Li Y, Zhang X, Wang R, and Lei Y (2019). Performance enhancement of rubberised concrete via surface modification of rubber: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 227: 116691.   [Google Scholar]
  26. Liu H, Zhang Q, Li V, Su H, and Gu C (2017). Durability study on engineered cementitious composites (ECC) under sulfate and chloride environment. Construction and Building Materials, 133: 171-181.   [Google Scholar]
  27. Lye HL, Mohammed BS, Liew MS, Wahab MMA, and Al-Fakih A (2020). Bond behaviour of CFRP-strengthened ECC using response surface methodology (RSM). Case Studies in Construction Materials, 12: e00327.   [Google Scholar]
  28. Ma H, Qian S, Zhang Z, Lin Z, and Li VC (2015). Tailoring engineered cementitious composites with local ingredients. Construction and Building Materials, 101: 584-595.   [Google Scholar]
  29. Meng D, Lee CK, and Zhang YX (2017). Flexural and shear behaviours of plain and reinforced polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composite beams. Engineering Structures, 151: 261-272.   [Google Scholar]
  30. Mohammed A, Sanjayan JG, Duan WH, and Nazari A (2015). Incorporating graphene oxide in cement composites: A study of transport properties. Construction and Building Materials, 84: 341-347.   [Google Scholar]
  31. Mohammed BS (2010). Structural behavior and m–k value of composite slab utilizing concrete containing crumb rubber. Construction and Building Materials, 24(7): 1214-1221.   [Google Scholar]
  32. Mohammed BS and Adamu M (2018). Mechanical performance of roller compacted concrete pavement containing crumb rubber and nano silica. Construction and Building Materials, 159: 234-251.   [Google Scholar]
  33. Mohammed BS and Azmi NJ (2014). Strength reduction factors for structural rubbercrete. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 8(3): 270-281.   [Google Scholar]
  34. Mohammed BS, Achara BE, and Liew MS (2018a). The influence of high temperature on microstructural damage and residual properties of nano-silica-modified (NS-modified) self-consolidating engineering cementitious composites (SC-ECC) using response surface methodology (RSM). Construction and Building Materials, 192: 450-466.   [Google Scholar]
  35. Mohammed BS, Achara BE, Liew MS, Alaloul WS, and Khed VC (2019). Effects of elevated temperature on the tensile properties of NS-modified self-consolidating engineered cementitious composites and property optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Construction and Building Materials, 206: 449-469.   [Google Scholar]
  36. Mohammed BS, Achara BE, Nuruddin MF, Yaw M, and Zulkefli MZ (2017). Properties of nano-silica-modified self-compacting engineered cementitious composites. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162: 1225-1238.   [Google Scholar]
  37. Mohammed BS, Adamu M, and Liew MS (2018c). Evaluating the static and dynamic modulus of elasticity of roller compacted rubbercrete using response surface methodology. International Journal, 14(41): 186-192.   [Google Scholar]
  38. Mohammed BS, Awang AB, San Wong S, and Nhavene CP (2016). Properties of nano silica modified rubbercrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 119: 66-75.   [Google Scholar]
  39. Mohammed BS, Baharun MH, Nuruddin MF, Erikol OPD, and Murshed NA (2014). Mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites mixture. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 567: 428-433.   [Google Scholar]
  40. Mohammed BS, Hossain KMA, Swee JTE, Wong G, and Abdullahi M (2012). Properties of crumb rubber hollow concrete block. Journal of Cleaner Production, 23(1): 57-67.   [Google Scholar]
  41. Mohammed BS, Khed VC, and Liew MS (2018b). Optimization of hybrid fibres in engineered cementitious composites. Construction and Building Materials, 190: 24-37.   [Google Scholar]
  42. Mohammed BS, Liew MS, Alaloul WS, Al-Fakih A, Ibrahim W, and Adamu M (2018d). Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 8: 401-408.   [Google Scholar]
  43. Najim KB, and Hall MR (2012). Mechanical and dynamic properties of self-compacting crumb rubber modified concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 27(1): 521-530.   [Google Scholar]
  44. Noorvand H, Arce G, Hassan M, Rupnow T, and Mohammad LN (2019). Investigation of the mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites with low fiber content and with crumb rubber and high fly ash content. Transportation Research Record, 2673(5): 418-428.   [Google Scholar]
  45. Rashad AM (2016). A comprehensive overview about recycling rubber as fine aggregate replacement in traditional cementitious materials. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 5(1): 46-82.   [Google Scholar]
  46. Şahmaran M and Li VC (2009). Durability properties of micro-cracked ECC containing high volumes fly ash. Cement and Concrete Research, 39(11): 1033-1043.   [Google Scholar]
  47. Soe KT, Zhang YX, and Zhang LC (2013). Impact resistance of hybrid-fiber engineered cementitious composite panels. Composite Structures, 104: 320-330.   [Google Scholar]
  48. Sofi A (2018). Effect of waste tyre rubber on mechanical and durability properties of concrete: A review. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 9(4): 2691-2700.   [Google Scholar]
  49. Song PS and Hwang S (2004). Mechanical properties of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 18(9): 669-673.   [Google Scholar]
  50. Van Mier J, Ruiz G, Andrade C, and Yu R (2013). Influence of crumb rubber on the mechanical behavior of engineered cementitious composites. In the 8th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures, Toledo, Spain: 1-7.   [Google Scholar]
  51. Wang Y, Zhang Z, Yu J, Xiao J, and Xu Q (2019). Using green supplementary materials to achieve more ductile ECC. Materials, 12(6): 858.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30875763 PMCid:PMC6471103
  52. Wu C and Li VC (2017). Thermal-mechanical behaviors of CFRP-ECC hybrid under elevated temperatures. Composites Part B: Engineering, 110: 255-266.   [Google Scholar]
  53. Yang EH, Sahmaran M, Yang Y, and Li VC (2009). Rheological control in production of engineered cementitious composites. ACI Materials Journal, 106(4): 357-366.   [Google Scholar]
  54. Youssf O, Hassanli R, Mills JE, Skinner W, Ma X, Zhuge Y, and Gravina R (2019). Influence of mixing procedures, rubber treatment, and fibre additives on rubcrete performance. Journal of Composites Science, 3(2): 41.   [Google Scholar]
  55. Youssf O, Mills JE, and Hassanli R (2016). Assessment of the mechanical performance of crumb rubber concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 125: 175-183.   [Google Scholar]
  56. Yu J, Chen Y, and Leung CK (2018). Micromechanical modeling of crack-bridging relations of hybrid-fiber strain-hardening cementitious composites considering interaction between different fibers. Construction and Building Materials, 182: 629-636.   [Google Scholar]
  57. Yu J, Lin J, Zhang Z, and Li VC (2015a). Mechanical performance of ECC with high-volume fly ash after sub-elevated temperatures. Construction and Building Materials, 99: 82-89.   [Google Scholar]
  58. Yu KQ, Dai JG, Lu ZD, and Leung CK (2015b). Mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites subjected to elevated temperatures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 27(10): 04014268.   [Google Scholar]
  59. Yung WH, Yung LC, and Hua LH (2013). A study of the durability properties of waste tire rubber applied to self-compacting concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 41: 665-672.   [Google Scholar]
  60. Zhang Z and Qian S (2013). Influence of rubber powder on the mechanical behavior of engineered cementitious composites. In the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials: Design, Performance, and Application, Wuhan, China: 215-224.   [Google Scholar]
  61. Zhang Z and Zhang Q (2018). Matrix tailoring of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with non-oil-coated, low tensile strength PVA fiber. Construction and Building Materials, 161: 420-431.   [Google Scholar]
  62. Zhang Z, Ma H, and Qian S (2015). Investigation on properties of ECC incorporating crumb rubber of different sizes. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 13(5): 241-251.   [Google Scholar]
  63. Zhang Z, Yuvaraj A, Di J, and Qian S (2019). Matrix design of light weight, high strength, high ductility ECC. Construction and Building Materials, 210: 188-197.   [Google Scholar]