International Journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2020), Pages: 1-10


 Original Research Paper

 Title: Using the Taguchi method to optimize the compressive strength of geopolymer mortars

 Author(s): My Ngoc-Tra Lam *


 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City Open University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


This paper presents the use of the Taguchi method to optimize the compressive strength of geopolymer mortars. The geopolymer was produced from fly ash as a prime material and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as additive. Fly ash was partially replaced with OPC in the geopolymer mixtures to enhance the compressive strength. The dosage of OPC, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution (SH), and the curing temperature were considered as the influencing factors on the compressive strength of geopolymer mortars. Three levels of each factor were chosen to carry out this research. As a result, the orthogonal array L9 of the Taguchi method was used to design the experiments. The results of the experiments were analyzed by the signal to ratio (SNR) and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). This analysis has revealed that the least significant factor in terms of strength contribution is the dosage of OPC content, whereas the curing temperature is the most important factor in terms of strength contribution. This research shows that the optimized value of 7-day compressive strength was obtained in the mixture containing 20% of OPC that was prepared by SH of 12 M concentration and cured at 100oC. In addition, the geopolymer mortar produced by 30% of OPC and SH of 12 M concentration and cured at 100oC gained the maximum compressive strength at 28-day age. 

 © 2020 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Analysis of variance, Compressive strength, Geopolymer mortar, Taguchi method, Signal to noise ratio

 Article History: Received 19 January 2020, Received in revised form 19 April 2020, Accepted 26 April 2020


The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Ho Chi Minh City Open University for this research (Contract No. E2019.11.2).

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


 Lam MNT (2020). Using the Taguchi method to optimize the compressive strength of geopolymer mortars. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 7(8): 1-10

 Permanent Link to this page


 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5


 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 


 References (28)

  1. Alvarez-Ayuso E, Querol X, Plana F, Alastuey A, Moreno N, Izquierdo M, and Barra M (2008). Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-) combustion fly ashes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154(1-3): 175-183.   [Google Scholar] PMid:18006153
  2. Andrew RM (2018). Global CO2 emissions from cement production, 1928–2017. Earth System Science Data, 10(4): 2213-2239.   [Google Scholar]
  3. ASTM (2005). ASTM C109/C109M-08: Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] cube specimens). American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  4. ASTM (2009). ASTM C778: Standard specification for standard sand. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, USA: 15–17.   [Google Scholar]
  5. Atis CD, Görür EB, Karahan OKAN, Bilim C, İlkentapar SERHAN, and Luga E (2015). Very high strength (120 MPa) class F fly ash geopolymer mortar activated at different NaOH amount, heat curing temperature and heat curing duration. Construction and Building Materials, 96: 673-678.   [Google Scholar]
  6. Bernhardt D and Reilly IIJF (2019). Mineral commodity summaries 2019. US Geological Survey, Reston, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  7. Chindaprasirt P, Chareerat T, and Sirivivatnanon V (2007). Workability and strength of coarse high calcium fly ash geopolymer. Cement and Concrete Composites, 29(3): 224-229.   [Google Scholar]
  8. Görhan G and Kürklü G (2014). The influence of the NaOH solution on the properties of the fly ash-based geopolymer mortar cured at different temperatures. Composites Part B: Engineering, 58: 371-377.   [Google Scholar]
  9. Guo X, Shi H, and Dick WA (2010). Compressive strength and microstructural characteristics of class C fly ash geopolymer. Cement and Concrete Composites, 32(2): 142-147.   [Google Scholar]
  10. Luukkonen T, Abdollahnejad Z, Yliniemi J, Kinnunen P, and Illikainen M (2018). One-part alkali-activated materials: A review. Cement and Concrete Research, 103: 21-34.   [Google Scholar]
  11. Mehta A and Siddique R (2017). Properties of low-calcium fly ash based geopolymer concrete incorporating OPC as partial replacement of fly ash. Construction and Building Materials, 150: 792-807.   [Google Scholar]
  12. Mishra A, Choudhary D, Jain N, Kumar M, Sharda N, and Dutt D (2008). Effect of concentration of alkaline liquid and curing time on strength and water absorption of geopolymer concrete. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(1): 14-18.   [Google Scholar]
  13. Nath P and Sarker PK (2015). Use of OPC to improve setting and early strength properties of low calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete cured at room temperature. Cement and Concrete Composites, 55: 205-214.   [Google Scholar]
  14. Nuaklong P, Sata V, Wongsa A, Srinavin K, and Chindaprasirt P (2018). Recycled aggregate high calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete with inclusion of OPC and nano-SiO2. Construction and Building Materials, 174: 244-252.   [Google Scholar]
  15. Olivia M and Nikraz H (2012). Properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete designed by Taguchi method. Materials and Design, 36: 191-198.   [Google Scholar]
  16. Palomo A, Grutzeck MW, and Blanco MT (1999). Alkali-activated fly ashes: A cement for the future. Cement and Concrete Research, 29(8): 1323-1329.   [Google Scholar]
  17. Panagiotopoulou C, Tsivilis S, and Kakali G (2015). Application of the Taguchi approach for the composition optimization of alkali activated fly ash binders. Construction and Building Materials, 91: 17-22.   [Google Scholar]
  18. Pangdaeng S, Phoo-ngernkham T, Sata V, and Chindaprasirt P (2014). Influence of curing conditions on properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer containing Portland cement as additive. Materials and Design, 53: 269-274.   [Google Scholar]
  19. Rattanasak U and Chindaprasirt P (2009). Influence of NaOH solution on the synthesis of fly ash geopolymer. Minerals Engineering, 22(12): 1073-1078.   [Google Scholar]
  20. Riahi S, Nazari A, Zaarei D, Khalaj G, Bohlooli H, and Kaykha MM (2012). Compressive strength of ash-based geopolymers at early ages designed by Taguchi method. Materials and Design, 37: 443-449.   [Google Scholar]
  21. Rovnaník P (2010). Effect of curing temperature on the development of hard structure of metakaolin-based geopolymer. Construction and Building Materials, 24(7): 1176-1183.   [Google Scholar]
  22. Roy R (1990). A primer on the Taguchi method. 1st Edition, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  23. Ryu GS, Lee YB, Koh KT, and Chung YS (2013). The mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with alkaline activators. Construction and Building Materials, 47: 409-418.   [Google Scholar]
  24. Shi CA, Jimenez F, and Palomo A (2011). New cements for the 21st Century: The pursuit of an alternative to Portland cement. Cement and Concrete Research, 41: 750-763.   [Google Scholar]
  25. Somna K, Jaturapitakkul C, Kajitvichyanukul P, and Chindaprasirt P (2011). NaOH-activated ground fly ash geopolymer cured at ambient temperature. Fuel, 90(6): 2118-2124.   [Google Scholar]
  26. Suwan T and Fan M (2014). Influence of OPC replacement and manufacturing procedures on the properties of self-cured geopolymer. Construction and Building Materials, 73: 551-561.   [Google Scholar]
  27. Tailby J and MacKenzie KJ (2010). Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals. Cement and Concrete Research, 40(5): 787-794.   [Google Scholar]
  28. Wang H, Li H, and Yan F (2005). Synthesis and mechanical properties of metakaolinite-based geopolymer. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 268(1-3): 1-6.   [Google Scholar]