International Journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN: 2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2020), Pages: 68-74


 Original Research Paper

 Title: A qualitative phenomenological venture of individuals’ experiences with a phobia

 Author(s): Evelyn Feliciano 1, 2, *, Mary Angelica Bagaoisan 2, Alfredo Feliciano 2, Ava Marie Lou Lenon 3, Amira Boshra 1, Jerry Ligawen 2, Abdulrahman Albougami 1, Jestoni Maniago 1, Dennison Jose Punsalan 2, Doroteo Dizon 2, Hydee Pangilinan 2


 1Department of Nursing, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
 2College of Nursing, Angeles University Foundation, Angeles 2009, Philippines
 3Health Insurance Department, NMC Specialty Hospital, Dubai 14354, United Arab Emirates

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


To raise awareness concerning continuous existence of phobia and its implications to lifestyle and health aspects psychiatric nursing, in particular, and the future steps that could gradually decline occurrence in relation to the nursing practice in a community setting, this descriptive phenomenological qualitative study aimed to depict factual experiences of 10 purposive samples aged 18-23 years old (x̅=19.7, SD+1.56), diagnosed with phobia from Pampanga, Philippines, in search with the uniqueness of their experience of activities of daily living (ADLs). Each sample was scheduled for an interview with the results of the experiences that were explicitly described by using Colaizzi’s method. Results revealed 11 major themes which include (1) evading fear, (2) anticipatory anxiety, (3) intense irrational fear, (4) phobia as a figure of mockery, (5) night-time perturbation, (6) fear even in pictures and movies, (7) retaliative response, (8) origin of fear, (9) conception of fear, (10) immutable fear, and (11) impediment; and, six sub-themes: (1) anticipatory anxiety of the place, (2) anticipatory anxiety of the stimulus, (3) sleepless nights, (4) nightmares, (5) body’ natural response, and (6) willful reaction. All participants were with firsthand experience of the phenomenon that tends to avoid any impending stimulus to cope with their ADLs. Despite known health risks and threats, the participants were continuously battling their fear of being exposed to their respective phobic stimuli to continue their ADLs and to suffice their physiologic demands. Results of the study support the need to coach, encourage and persuade people in understanding and providing continuous support to these people with phobia regardless of age, gender, marital status and the severity of their anxiety. Finally, findings will enable the general public of the awareness and motivation in providing continuous support and understanding to individuals experiencing phobia. Adequate knowledge of the experience will enable the majority the in-depth understanding of how it is to be in experience of phobia to promote self-education and psychiatric health. 

 © 2020 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Life experience, Mental health nursing, Phobia, Psychiatric nursing

 Article History: Received 18 January 2020, Received in revised form 19 April 2020, Accepted 20 April 2020


Special thanks to all participants in Pampanga, Philippines, who voluntarily partake in the implementation of this scholar work. Likewise, extending the gratitude to Geoffer Baluyut, Ruiza Coronel, Alessandra Isip, Cassandra Faith Quijano, Jeric Cabusao, and Tricia Guda.


The authors would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah University with a project no. R-1441-83.

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Informed consent: 

Informed consent was engaged from all participants involved in the study. Entire measures accomplished in studies involving individuals as participants were in agreement with the institutional standards of ethics. Confidentiality and anonymity are achieved, maintained, preserved at the beginning until the end of the study with the informants fully aware of the objectives, risks, and benefits in partaking in the course with the assurance that they can depart at any time from the study. 

 Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


 Feliciano E, Bagaoisan MA, and Feliciano A et al. (2020). A qualitative phenomenological venture of individuals’ experiences with a phobia. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 7(7): 68-74

 Permanent Link to this page


 No Figure


 Table 1 Table 2


 References (27)

  1. Adolphs R (2013). The biology of fear. Current Biology, 23(2): R79-R93.   [Google Scholar] PMid:23347946 PMCid:PMC3595162
  2. Albor YC, Benjet C, Méndez E, and Medina-Mora ME (2017). Persistence of specific phobia from adolescence to early adulthood: Longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican adolescent mental health survey. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78(3): 340-346.   [Google Scholar] PMid:28394508
  3. APA (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric Publisher, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  4. Burstein M, Georgiades K, He JP, Schmitz A, Feig E, Khazanov GK, and Merikangas K (2012). Specific phobia among US adolescents: Phenomenology and typology. Depression and Anxiety, 29(12): 1072-1082.   [Google Scholar] PMid:23108894 PMCid:PMC3955257
  5. Fontaine K (2009). Mental health nursing. 6th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  6. Fragiotta G, Pierelli F, Coppola G, Conte C, Perrotta A, and Serrao M. (2019). Effect of phobic visual stimulation on spinal nociception. Physiology and Behavior, 206: 22-27.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30902634
  7. Garcia R (2017). Neurobiology of fear and specific phobias. Learning and Memory, 24(9): 462-471.   [Google Scholar] PMid:28814472 PMCid:PMC5580526
  8. Gremsi A, Schwab D, Höfler C, and Schienle A (2018). Placebo effects in spider phobia: An eye-tracking experiment. Cognition and Emotion, 32(8): 1571-1577.   [Google Scholar] PMid:29303037
  9. Inhof O, Arató N, Bandi SA, Budai T, Darnai G, and Zsidó AN (2019). Examination of shortened version of spider phobia and snake phobia questionnaire on Hungarian sample. Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiatriai Tarsasag Tudomanyos Folyoirata, 34(1): 11-18.   [Google Scholar]
  10. Leblanc MF, Desjardins S, and Desgagné A (2015). Sleep problems in anxious and depressive older adults. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 8: 161-169.   [Google Scholar] PMid:26089709 PMCid:PMC4467743
  11. Martin GN (2019). (Why) do you like scary movies? A review of the empirical research on psychological responses to horror films. Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 2298.   [Google Scholar] PMid:31681095 PMCid:PMC6813198
  12. Norman I and Ryrie L (2009). The art and science of mental health nursing a textbook and practice. 2nd Edition, Open University Press: McGraw-Hill Education, New York, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  13. Oar EL, Farrell LJ, Waters AM, and Ollendick TH (2016). Blood-injection-injury phobia and dog phobia in youth: Psychological characteristics and associated features in a clinical sample. Behavior Therapy, 47(3): 312-324.   [Google Scholar] PMid:27157026
  14. Polit D and Beck CT (2016). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. 10th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  15. Rubo M, Huestegge L, and Gamer M (2019). Social anxiety modulates visual exploration in real life–but not in the laboratory. British Journal of Psychology.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30945279 PMCid:PMC7187184
  16. Shives LR (2008). Basic concepts of psychiatric-mental health nursing. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  17. Shives LR and Isaacs A (2002). Basic concepts of psychiatric mental-health nursing. 5th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  18. Sigstrom R, Skoog I, Karlsson B, Nilsson J, and Östling S (2016). Nine‐year follow‐up of specific phobia in a population sample of older people. Depression and Anxiety, 33(4): 339-346.   [Google Scholar] PMid:26645153
  19. Smith J and Osborn M (2007). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Smith JA (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods: 53-80. Sage, London, UK.   [Google Scholar]
  20. Souza RO (2018). Phobia of the supernatural: A distinct but poorly recognized specific phobia with an adverse impact on daily living. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9: 590.   [Google Scholar] PMid:30505286 PMCid:PMC6250805
  21. Speziale HS, Streubert HJ, and Carpenter DR (2011). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  22. Townsend M (2008). Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing. 4th Edition, F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  23. Valfre M (2001). Foundations of mental health care. 2nd Edition, Mosby, Maryland Heights, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  24. Videbeck S (2020). Psychiatric-mental health nursing. 8th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.   [Google Scholar]
  25. Yoshizumi AM, Asis DG, and Luz FA (2018). Auricular chromotherapy in the treatment of psychologic trauma, phobias, and panic disorder. Medical Acupuncture, 30(3): 151-154.   [Google Scholar] PMid:29937969 PMCid:PMC6011373
  26. Zsido AN, Arato N, Inhof O, Janszky J, and Darnai G (2018). Short versions of two specific phobia measures: The snake and the spider questionnaires. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 54: 11-16.   [Google Scholar] PMid:29306023
  27. Zwanzger P (2016). Pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr, 84(5): 306-314.   [Google Scholar] PMid:27299791