International journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN:2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2019), Pages: 35-41


 Original Research Paper

 Title: Impact of hydrodynamic forces on a static vehicle at varying Froude numbers under partial submergence and subcritical flow conditions

 Author(s): Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah, Zahiraniza Mustaffa *, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof


 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

  Full Text - PDF          XML

 * Corresponding Author. 

  Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

 Digital Object Identifier:


Roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which usually ends up as a serious hazard to the traffic. A vehicle, when submerged in floodwaters, is affected by several hydrodynamic forces, namely frictional, buoyancy, lift and drag forces. An understanding of the relevant forces involved is necessary to attempt to characterize the stability thresholds of vehicles in floodwaters. With that regards, a series of flume experiments were conducted on a static scaled model vehicle, Volkswagen Scirocco (1:24) which ensured the similarity laws. To assess the limiting thresholds that could lead to the stability failure modes, the vehicle was controlled to be partially submerged under the subcritical flow conditions. The vehicle was placed at the same domain with different orientations, namely 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° and 360° for each run to reduce inconsistencies in the test data. Based on the varying hydraulic variables assessed from the experimental runs, the hydrodynamic forces were theoretically estimated. Later, the relation between the hydrodynamic forces at varying Froude numbers was determined. From the study outcomes, an inverse relation of Froude number with respect to buoyancy force was noticed. On the other hand, an increment in the lift force slightly increased the Froude number. Similarly, a positive trend between the drag and frictional forces with respect to the Froude number was witnessed. 

 © 2019 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Floodwaters, Hydrodynamic forces, Froude number, Static vehicle, Partial submergence, Subcritical flow

 Article History: Received 29 April 2019, Received in revised form 31 August 2019, Accepted 2 September 2019


This research was supported by University Technology PETRONAS (UTP) Internal Grant (URIF 0153AAG24), the Prototype Fund Grant (Cost Centre: 015PBA–008) and the Technology Innovation Program (Grant No.: 10053121) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MI, Korea).

 Compliance with ethical standards

 Conflict of interest:  The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


 Shah SMH, Mustaffa Z, and Yusof KW (2019). Impact of hydrodynamic forces on a static vehicle at varying Froude numbers under partial submergence and subcritical flow conditions. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(11): 35-41

 Permanent Link to this page


 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 


 No Table


 References (14) 

  1. Arrighi C, Alcèrreca-Huerta JC, Oumeraci H, and Castelli F (2015). Drag and lift contribution to the incipient motion of partly submerged flooded vehicles. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 57: 170-184.   [Google Scholar]
  2. Bonham AJ and Hattersley RT (1967). Low level causeways. Technical Report No. 100, Water Research Laboratory, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia.    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chien N and Wan Z (1999). Mechanics of sediment transport. American Society of Civil Engineers Press, Reston, USA.    [Google Scholar]
  4. Martínez‐Gomariz E, Gómez M, Russo B, and Djordjević S (2018). Stability criteria for flooded vehicles: A state‐of‐the‐art review. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 11(S2): S817-S826.    [Google Scholar]
  5. Mustaffa Z (2004). An experimental investigation of the hydraulics of street inlets. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.    [Google Scholar]
  6. Poirot S (2012). Handbook of fluid dynamics and fluid hydronomics: Fundamentals and applications. Auris Reference, London, UK.    [Google Scholar]
  7. Salleh MKA (2009). Simulation and analysis drag and lift coefficient between sedan and hatchback car. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia.    [Google Scholar]
  8. Shah SMH, Mustaffa Z, Martinez-Gomariz E, Kim DK, and Yusof KW (2019). Criterion of vehicle instability in floodwaters: Past, present and future. International Journal of River Basin Management: 1-41.    [Google Scholar]
  9. Shu C, Xia J, Falconer RA, and Lin B (2011). Incipient velocity for partially submerged vehicles in floodwaters. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 49(6): 709-717.    [Google Scholar]
  10. Smith G (2015). Expert opinion: Stability of people, vehicles and buildings in flood water. Technical Report 2015/11, Water Research Laboratory, Allambie Heights, Australia.    [Google Scholar]
  11. Smith GP, Modra BD, and Felder S (2019). Full‐scale testing of stability curves for vehicles in flood waters. Journal of Flood Risk Management.    [Google Scholar]
  12. Teo FY, Falconer RA, Lin B, and Xia J (2012a). Investigations of hazard risks relating to vehicles moving in flood. The Journal of Water Resources Management, 1(1): 52-66.    [Google Scholar]
  13. Teo FY, Xia J, Falconer RA, and Lin B (2012b). Experimental studies on the interaction between vehicles and floodplain flows. International Journal of River Basin Management, 10(2): 149-160.    [Google Scholar]
  14. Xia J, Teo FY, Lin B, and Falconer RA (2011). Formula of incipient velocity for flooded vehicles. Natural Hazards, 58(1): 1-14.    [Google Scholar]