International journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN:2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 5, Issue 7 (July 2018), Pages: 53-57


 Original Research Paper

 Title: Antifungal effects of six herbal extracts against Aspergillus sp. and compared to amphotericin B and nystatin

 Author(s): Ahmad Tajehmiri 1, 2, Mohammad Reza Rahmani 3, Seyedeh Sarah Moosavi 4, Kambiz Davari 4, *, Seyedeh Sarah Ebrahimi 4


 1Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
 2Zist Iman Razi Company, Bistoon Industrial Zone, Kermanshah, Iran
 3Department of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
 4Department of Biology, College of Basic Science, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

 Full Text - PDF          XML


Aspergillus is a filamentous fungus of wide distribution having widespread species diversity. Among pathogenic species of Aspergillus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus are regarded as the most important pathogenic agents. The aim of this research is to study the antifungal effects of Artemisia dracunculus L, Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Bunium persicum, Cuminum cyminum L, Zataria multiflora Boiss, and Satureja hortensis extracts against Aspergillus Sp. The herbal extracts were prepared using maceration method. 50gr of ground plant was introduced into a 1-litre flask and macerated with 400ml of 70% ethanol for 24h and then was shaken on shaker. Afterwards, different concentrations of the extract were prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide solvent (DMSO). The extracts were filtered and sterilized. Suspension of each fungus was separately prepared with 1×106 CFU/ml concentration. The antifungal effects of the extracts were measured through NCCLS protocols and Broth dilution method. The control and comparison were done between the antifungal effects of the mentioned herbal extracts and Amphotericin B and Nystatin. The results indicated that the range of MIC and MFC values of these drugs was significantly higher (p≤0.05) compared to the prepared herbal extracts of different dilutions and control group of drug solvent, too. Results showed that the extracts of all herbal extracts have antifungal properties against Aspergillus sp. 

 © 2018 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Anti-fungal effects, Medicinal plants, Aspergillus

 Article History: Received 30 November 2017, Received in revised form 22 April 2018, Accepted 27 April 2018

 Digital Object Identifier:


 Tajehmiri A, Rahmani MR, and Moosavi SS et al. (2018). Antifungal effects of six herbal extracts against Aspergillus sp. and compared to amphotericin B and nystatin. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5(7): 53-57

 Permanent Link:


 References (27) 

  1. Anaissie EJ, McGinnis MR, and Pfaller MA (2009). Clinical mycology. Elsevier Health Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.   [Google Scholar] 
  2. Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sarrafzadegan N, Mohammadifard NO, Mostafavi S, and Vakili R (2000). Antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Achillea wilhelmsii. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research, 26(3): 89-94.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:10941601     
  3. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, and Idaomar M (2008). Biological effects of essential oils–A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(2): 446-75.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:17996351     
  4. Baser KH, Oezek T, Abduganiev BE, Abdullaev UA, and Aripov KN (1997). Composition of the essential oil of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch. from Tajikistan. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 9(5): 597-598.   [Google Scholar] 
  5. Boyraz N and Özcan M (2005). Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols. Fitoterapia, 76(7-8): 661-665.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:16243447 
  6. Curtis L, Cali S, Conroy L, Baker K, Ou CH, Hershow R, Norlock-Cruz F, and Scheff P (2005). Aspergillus surveillance project at a large tertiary-care hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 59(3): 188-96.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:15694975 
  7. Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, and Polissiou MG (2003). The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis. Crop Protection, 22(1): 39-44.   [Google Scholar] 
  8. Doust RH, Saberi M, Hosseini MJ, and Mobarez AM (2013). Surveillance of current antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeroginosa collected from five Iranian cities. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, 1(3): 175-183.   [Google Scholar]     
  9. Ghasemi Dehkordi N (2002). Iranian herbal pharmacpren. Ministry of Health Publication, Tehran, Iran.  
  10. Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, and Pezeshkian SK (2002). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Satureja hortensis L. extracts and essential oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 82(2-3): 83-87.   [Google Scholar] 
  11. Kalemba DA and Kunicka A (2003). Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 10(10): 813-829.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:12678685     
  12. Karaman S, Digrak M, Ravid U, and Ilcim A (2001). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thymus revolutus Celak from Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76(2): 183-186.   [Google Scholar] 
  13. Mahmoudabadi AZ, Dabbagh MA, and Fouladi Z (2007). In vitro anti-Candida activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4(3): 351-353.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:17965766 PMCid:PMC1978241 
  14. Marino M, Bersani C, and Comi G (1999). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L. measured using a bioimpedometric method. Journal of Food Protection, 62(9): 1017-1023.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:10492476 
  15. Meepagala KM, Sturtz G, and Wedge DE (2002). Antifungal constituents of the essential oil fraction of Artemisia dracunculus L. var. dracunculus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(24): 6989-6992.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:12428948 
  16. Mekawey AA, Mokhtar MM, and Farrag RM (2009). Antitumor and antibacterial activities of [1-(2-Ethyl, 6-Heptyl) Phenol] from Cuminum cyminum seeds. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5(11): 1881-1888.   [Google Scholar]    
  17. O'Gorman MR and Hopfer RL (1991). Amphotericin B susceptibility testing of Candida species by flow cytometry. Cytometry Part A, 12(8): 743-747.   [Google Scholar] PMid:1794254     
  18. Okazaki K, Kawazoe K, and Takaishi Y (2002). Human platelet aggregation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Phytotherapy Research, 16(4): 398-399.   [Google Scholar] PMid:12112303     
  19. Pai MB, Prashant GM, Murlikrishna KS, Shivakumar KM, and Chandu GN (2010). Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: an in vitro study. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 21(3): 334-336.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:20930339 
  20. Rashidi A, Mousavi B, Rahmani MR, Rezaee MA, Hosaini W, Motaharinia Y, Davari B, and Zamini G (2012). Evaluation of antifungal effect of Lavandula officinalis, Salvia officinalis L., Sumac, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Althaea officinalis extracts on Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus species. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(2): 309-313.   [Google Scholar]     
  21. Saǧdıç O and Özcan M (2003). Antibacterial activity of Turkish spice hydrosols. Food Control, 14(3): 141-143.   [Google Scholar] 
  22. Salgueiro LR, Cavaleiro C, Pinto E, Pina-Vaz C, Rodrigues AG, Palmeira A, Tavares C, Costa-de-Oliveira S, Gonçalves MJ, and Martinez-de-Oliveira J (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Origanum virens on Candida species. Planta Medica, 69(09): 871-874.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:14598221 
  23. Sayyah M, Nadjafnia L, and Kamalinejad M (2004). Anticonvulsant activity and chemical composition of Artemisia dracunculus L. essential oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 94(2-3): 283-287.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:15325732 
  24. Shadzi S (2007). Medical mycology. Tehran University Publication, Tehran, Iran.    
  25. Shanmugam SK, Kumar Y, SardarYar KM, Gupta V, and De Clercq E (2010). Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Turbinariaconoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 9(4): 411-416.   [Google Scholar]    
  26. Sullivan DJ, Moran GP, Pinjon E, Al-Mosaid A, Stokes C, Vaughan C, and Coleman DC (2004). Comparison of the epidemiology, drug resistance mechanisms, and virulence of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans. FEMS Yeast Research, 4(4-5): 369-376.   [Google Scholar] 
  27. Teles F and Seixas J (2015). The future of novel diagnostics in medical mycology. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 64(4): 315-22.   [Google Scholar]  PMid:25418735