International journal of


EISSN: 2313-3724, Print ISSN:2313-626X

Frequency: 12

line decor
line decor

 Volume 5, Issue 2 (February 2018), Pages: 148-160


 Original Research Paper

 Title: A new approach for scene-based digital video watermarking using discrete wavelet transforms

 Author(s): Dolley Shukla *, Manisha Sharma


 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Bhilai, India

 Full Text - PDF          XML


This paper presents a scene based video watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform in the application of video copyright protection. The proposed technique combines the successive estimation of statistical measure (SESAME) technique with video watermarking. In this proposed technique, first level decomposition using 2D-discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of LL sub-band of the cover video frames is considered for embedding. To reduce the computational time, watermark image is inserted only in the scene change frames. To detect the scene changed frame, successive estimation of the statistical measure and HiBiSLI algorithm based scene change detector is designed, which is the most novel-part of the work. In the case of watermarking, the correlation between successive frames is an ideal measure for identifying scene change. The performance shows overall improvement in the measured value of metrics like mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, normalized correlation, and structural similarity index and bit error rate for embedding using level 1 decomposition. The proposed system achieves robustness against image processing attacks, geometrical attacks, jpeg compression and different video attacks. Further performance enhancements have achieved by embedding at level-2 decomposition. The empirical result suggests that increasing number of levels can improve the performance of the system. Improvement in the robustness and transparency is calculated in terms of bit error rate, normalized correlation and SSIM. Finally, the results are discussed in light of some recently reported studies and have proven a non-blind, robust and imperceptible watermarking system. 

 © 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE.

 This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

 Keywords: Video, Video watermarking, Estimation of statistical measure, Sub-bands, Scene change detector

 Article History: Received 29 March 2017, Received in revised form 20 December 2017, Accepted 25 December 2017

 Digital Object Identifier:


 Shukla D and Sharma M (2018). A new approach for scene-based digital video watermarking using discrete wavelet transforms. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5(2): 148-160

 Permanent Link:


 References (31)

  1. Agilandeeswari L and Ganesan K (2016). A robust color video watermarking scheme based on hybrid embedding techniques. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75(14): 8745-8780. 
  2. Asikuzzaman M, Alam MJ, Lambert AJ, and Pickering MR (2012). A blind digital video watermarking scheme with enhanced robustness to geometric distortion. In the International Conference on Digital Image Computing Techniques and Applications, IEEE, Fremantle, Australia: 1-8. 
  3. Chandramouli R and Memon N (2001). Analysis of LSB based image steganography techniques. In the International Conference on Image Processing, IEEE, Thessaloniki, Greece, 3: 1019-1022. 
  4. Cox IJ and Miller ML (2002). The first 50 years of electronic watermarking. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2002(2): 126-132. 
  5. Doerr G and Dugelay JL (2003). A guide tour of video watermarking. Signal processing: Image communication, 18(4): 263-282. 
  6. Duan FY, King I, Chan LW, and Xu L (1998). Intra-block algorithm for digital watermarking. In the Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 2: 1589-1591. 
  7. El Allali A, Elabbadi J, and Elahaj EI (2012). Video object watermarking using 3d-walsh hadamard transform and arnold transform. In the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, IEEE, Tangier, Morocco: 119-124. 
  8. Esen E and Alatan AA (2011). Robust video data hiding using forbidden zone data hiding and selective embedding. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 21(8): 1130-1138. 
  9. Ghosh P, Ghosh R, Sinha S, Mukhopadhyay U, Kole DK, and Chakroborty A (2012). A novel digital watermarking technique for video copyright protection. In the In: International Conference of Advanced Computer Science & Information Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India. 
  10. Hartung F and Girod B (1996). Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video. In the European EOS/SPIE Conference on Advanced Imaging and Network Technologies, Digital Compression Technologies and Systems for Video Communication, Berlin, Germany, 2952: 205-213. 
  11. Hong I, Kim I, and Han SS (2001). A blind watermarking technique using wavelet transform. In the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics, IEEE, Pusan, South Korea, 3: 1946-1950. 
  12. Hussein J and Mohammed A (2009). Robust video watermarking using multi-band wavelet transform. International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 6(1):44-49.     
  13. Junxiao X, Qingbin L, and Zhiyong L (2011). A novel digital video watermarking algorithm. Procedia Engineering, 24: 90-94. 
  14. Kothari AM and Dwivedi VV (2012). Transform domain video watermarking: Design, implementation and performance analysis. In the International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), IEEE, Rajkot, India: 133-137. 
  15. Langelaar GC, Setyawan I, and Lagendijk RL (2000). Watermarking digital image and video data. A state-of-the-art overview. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 17(5): 20-46. 
  16. Lee SJ and Jung SH (2001). A survey of watermarking techniques applied to multimedia. In the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics, IEEE, Pusan, South Korea, 1: 272-277. 
  17. Leelavathy N, Prasad EV, and Kumar SS (2012). A scene based video watermarking in discrete multiwavelet domain. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, 3(7): 12-16.     
  18. Liu Y and Zhao J (2010). A new video watermarking algorithm based on 1D DFT and radon transform. Signal Processing, 90(2): 626-639. 
  19. Masoumi M and Amiri S (2012). A high capacity digital watermarking scheme for copyright protection of video data based on YCbCr color channels invariant to geometric and non-geometric attacks. International Journal of Computer Applications, 51(13): 13-20. 
  20. Niu X and Sun S (2000). A new wavelet-based digital watermarking for video. In the 9th IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop, IEEE, Texas, USA: 1-6.     
  21. Pereira S and Pun T (2000). Robust template matching for affine resistant image watermarks. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 9(6): 1123-1129. PMid:18255481     
  22. Saez E, Benavides JI, and Guil N (2004). Reliable real time scene change detection in MPEG compressed video. In the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan, 1: 567-570.     
  23. Seong YK, Choi YH, and Choi TS (2004). Scene-based watermarking method for copy protection using image complexity and motion vector amplitude. In the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, IEEE, Montreal, Que., Canada, 3: 403-409. 
  24. Sequeira A and Kundur D (2001). Communication and information theory in watermarking: A survey. Multimedia Systems and Applications IV, 4518: 216-227. 
  25. Serdean CV, Ambroze MA, Tomlinson M, and Wade G (2002). Combating geometrical attacks in a dwt based blind video watermarking system. In the 4th EURASIP-IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Video/Image Processing and Multimedia Communications, IEEE, Zadar, Croatia: 263-266. 
  26. Shukla D and Sharma M (2016). Video watermarking using dyadic filter and discrete wavelet transform. In the International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking, IEEE, Chennai, India: 1647-1650. 
  27. Singh TR, Singh KM, and Roy S (2013). Video watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography and scene change detection. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 67(8): 645-651. 
  28. Thanh TM, Hiep PT, Tam TM, and Tanaka K (2014). Robust semi-blind video watermarking based on frame-patch matching. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 68(10): 1007-1015. 
  29. Xiaona Z, Guoqing Q, Qiang W, and Tao Z (2010). An improved approach of scene change detection in archived films. In the IEEE 10th International Conference on Signal Processing, IEEE, Beijing, China: 825-828.     
  30. Yang G, Li J, He Y, and Kang Z (2011). An information hiding algorithm based on intra-prediction modes and matrix coding for H. 264/AVC video stream. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 65(4): 331-337. 
  31. Zhang L, Cao Z, and Gao C (2000). Application of RS-coded MPSK modulation scenarios to compressed image communication in mobile fading channel. In the 52nd IEEE-VTS Fall VTC Vehicular Technology Conference, IEEE, Boston, MA, USA, 3: 1198-1203.